The influence of health-promoting lifestyles on the quality of life of retired workers in a medium-sized city of Northeastern China
© The Japanese Society for Hygiene 2013
Received: 29 November 2012
Accepted: 23 April 2013
Published: 23 May 2013
The aim of this study was to clarify the actual state of retired workers’ lifestyles and quality of life (QOL) in a medium-sized city of Northeastern China and to assess the relationship between these according to differences between gender groups.
The Chinese version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and demographic variables were used to measure 343 (aged 50–79 years) retired workers’ lifestyles and QOL. The results were analyzed using the t test, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis.
Among the six lifestyle subscales of HPLP-II, the highest mean score was for Interpersonal Relations (IR) and the lowest was for Health Responsibility (HR), which has not been reported previously. The youngest group (50–60 years) had higher scores for lifestyles and QOL than the other age groups. When the results were analyzed based on financial situation, the lowest income group (below ¥2000) had the poorest scores. Analysis according to gender group revealed different tendencies for the scores of lifestyle and QOL, as well as in the multiple regression analysis between variables.
Our results suggest that an effective approach to maintain a desirable lifestyle and QOL for retired workers at the regional level would be to introduce daily activities to improve HR and to maintain and enhance social support for the low-income populations. Further research is needed to understand the complex causal pathways between regional health and welfare factors, health behavior, and QOL.
China has entered the aging society where the health and well-being of the elderly are becoming particularly important. The importance of a healthy lifestyle is receiving increasing attention due to its effect on health and well-being. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that approximately 50.8 % of deaths are attributable to major chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus) that are closely related to an unhealthy lifestyle . The epidemiologic transition from infection to chronic disease as a leading cause of death together with the aging of the population and rapidly escalating healthcare costs illustrate the urgent need for a shift in public health care systems from acute treatment to the prevention of disease and the promotion of better health-related behavior . It is therefore necessary to focus on lifestyle as a fundamental measure for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases .
A health-promoting lifestyle is a pattern of self-initiated actions which individuals take to control, maintain, or enhance their own health [4, 5]. Lifestyle patterns have significant effects on long-term morbidity and mortality that is becoming increasingly evident. Many studies have demonstrated that healthy lifestyles not only promote health but also can mitigate the negative effects of chronic disease and decrease the incidence of various health conditions [6, 7]. Consequently, encouraging a healthy lifestyle is crucial in terms of potentially preventing the development of chronic diseases, reducing morbidity, improving the quality of life (QOL), and decreasing medical costs and the healthcare burden on society.
The WHO defines QOL as “individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live, and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns” . It is a broad-ranging concept which encompasses a person’s physical and psychological state, level of independence, and social relationships . However, the association between healthy lifestyles and QOL has been the subject of relatively few studies, and these have focused mainly on disease populations [10–12]. In one earlier study on the relationship between healthy lifestyle and QOL, the authors found that positive psychosocial behavior, positive health practices, and exercise and physical recreation were all significantly related to perceived health and well-being . Health outcome appraisals is a vital part of QOL, and an understanding of the relationship between healthy lifestyle and QOL would have important implications for the design of health promotion programs to improve the overall QOL of the general public .
Previous Chinese studies of lifestyles or QOL focused mainly on urban populations and patients or on specific populations, such as AIDS patients, HIV-infected heroin users, Bell’s palsy patients, workers exposed to coal dust, rural-to-urban migrants, civil servants, professional drivers, and earthquake victims [14–21]. However, very few studies have examined whether and, if so, how QOL is associated with lifestyles and health among retired workers. In this context, the present study is unique because we focused on retired workers residing in Northeastern China, first clarifying the actual state of their lifestyles and QOL and then assessing the relationship between these, with comparisons to differences among gender groups. We used a questionnaire of the Chinese version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) to evaluate the retired workers’ lifestyles and the Chinese version of the WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument to directly relate these factors to QOL.
This research may facilitate our understanding of health-promoting lifestyles and QOL of Chinese retired workers in a medium-sized city. Such information may prove to be valuable to local healthcare policy-makers and researchers for determining the most effective levels of public health interventions to be implemented with the aim of improving the QOL of these populations. The study may also provide credible basic information for the Healthy China 2020 program.
Data collection and sampling
This was a cross-sectional survey of 343 retired workers (aged 50–79 years; the retirement age is 60 years for men and 50 years for women in the general workforce in China) who were recruited from the Retired Workers Activity Center of Liaoning Power Plant (LPP) among 1,497 retired workers. The LPP was constructed in 1957 and is a state-owned enterprise in Northeastern China that is located in a rural–urban fringe in Fushun City, Liaoning Province. The LPP, and not the community, provides an annual physical examination and a number of social welfare benefits to all employees, including retired workers. The Retired Workers Activity Center is a location where retired workers can meet on a daily basis and participate in recreational activities, including billiards, Chinese chess, dancing, reading, mahjong, table tennis, among others. It is managed by eight office managers. The participants in the study could read and write Chinese. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to these individuals from July to October 2011.
The study was a questionnaire survey. The questionnaires consisted of questions from the Chinese version of HPLP-II and the Chinese version of the WHOQOL-BREF and those on socio-demographic factors. The HPLP-II has been extensively used to measure and evaluate lifestyles or daily activity . The Chinese version of HPLP-II was developed by Wang et al. , and the reliability and validity have been demonstrated. The HPLP-II instrument contains the following six subscales with total of 52 items: (1) health responsibility (HR, 9 items), (2) spiritual growth (SG, 9 items), (3) physical activity (PA, 8 items), (4) interpersonal relationships (IR, 9 items), (5) nutrition (N, 9 items), and (6) stress management (SM, 8 items). The overall score of HPLP-II was calculated from the mean score of 52 items. Each participant was asked to rate each item according to a Likert response scale where 1 = never, 2 = sometimes, 3 = often, and 4 = routinely. A mean of ≥2.50 was considered to be a positive response, in line with a previous study .
The psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF  derived from the WHOQOL-100  have been previously evaluated in different cultures and societies [27, 28]. The Chinese version of WHOQOL-BREF consists of 26 items and includes two aspects (Q1 as general QOL and Q2 as general health) and four domains: physical domain (D1, 7 items), psychological domain (D2, 6 items), social interaction domain (D3, 3 items) and environmental domain (D4, 8 items). Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert scale (very poor, poor, fair, good, excellent), and the total score for each domain is standardly converted to a score that ranges either from 4 to 20, with low scores indicating poor QOL . In our study, a domain was treated as missing when >20 % of the items pertaining to that domain were missing.
This study was conducted after obtaining informed consent from all subjects in written form and approval from the ethics committee of Kumamoto University Faculty of Life Sciences (approval number 408). The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All selected subjects were informed of the purpose of the study and were assured confidentiality upon receipt of the questionnaire. Consent to participate in the study was confirmed upon completion and return of the questionnaire. Data were processed at a restricted location using a personal unidentifiable code for each subject.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 17.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The scores were normally distributed and the variability in the data was homogeneous. Cronbach’s alpha analysis was performed to determine the reliability of the survey. The t test and a one-way analysis of variance were used to assess group differences with respect to their statistical significance. The correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to assess the relationships between age, income, health-promoting lifestyles, and QOL of retired workers by gender. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Demographic characteristics of participants
Mean age (years)
63.63 ± 6.35 (50–79)
Age groups (years)
Junior high school
College or higher
Low (below ¥2000)
High (¥3001 or above)
The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the HPLP-II in this sample was 0.93, and that for each subscale was 0.82 (HR), 0.81 (SG), 0.73 (PA), 0.77 (IR), 0.70 (N), and 0.82 (SM). For the WHOQOL-BREF Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.84, and that for each domain was 0.33 (Physical), 0.61 (Psychological), 0.69 (Social interaction), and 0.74 (Environment).
Distribution of average score of health lifestyle behaviors according to the HPLP-IIa based on completed and returned survey questionnaires (n = 343)
Variables (total n)
2.63 ± 0.38
2.37 ± 0.52
2.79 ± 0.52
2.40 ± 0.57
2.86 ± 0.42
2.64 ± 0.43
2.67 ± 0.52
2.54 ± 0.38
2.25 ± 0.52
2.59 ± 0.52
2.34 ± 0.57
2.79 ± 0.40
2.66 ± 0.39
2.55 ± 0.54
2.45 ± 0.43
2.22 ± 0.53
2.42 ± 0.60
2.26 ± 0.60
2.68 ± 0.45
2.62 ± 0.40
2.47 ± 0.62
2.49 ± 0.41
2.19 ± 0.53
2.55 ± 0.54
2.31 ± 0.61
2.72 ± 0.43
2.59 ± 0.40
2.53 ± 0.58
2.63 ± 0.37
2.38 ± 0.50
2.71 ± 0.55
2.39 ± 0.55
2.88 ± 0.39
2.70 ± 0.41
2.63 ± 0.51
Income (in RMB)
2.48 ± 0.38
2.23 ± 0.50
2.50 ± 0.58
2.27 ± 0.56
2.78 ± 0.45
2.57 ± 0.40
2.47 ± 0.51
2.62 ± 0.38
2.37 ± 0.52
2.74 ± 0.49
2.39 ± 0.57
2.79 ± 0.38
2.73 ± 0.40
2.64 ± 0.55
2.66 ± 0.40
2.31 ± 0.58
2.79 ± 0.50
2.50 ± 0.61
2.85 ± 0.41
2.70 ± 0.42
2.78 ± 0.60
2.56 ± 0.39
2.29 ± 0.52
2.63 ± 0.55
2.35 ± 0.58
2.80 ± 0.42
2.65 ± 0.41
2.58 ± 0.55
Distribution of average score of quality of life according to the WHOQOL-BREFa based on completed and returned survey questionnairesa (n = 343)
Variables (total n)
Social interaction (D3)
3.78 ± 0.73
3.66 ± 0.80
3.55 ± 0.36
3.62 ± 0.42
3.81 ± 0.47
3.42 ± 0.49
3.68 ± 0.70
3.47 ± 0.91
3.47 ± 0.40
3.47 ± 0.39
3.59 ± 0.48
3.43 ± 0.44
3.45 ± 0.94
3.16 ± 1.17
3.34 ± 0.51
3.33 ± 0.61
3.55 ± 0.76
3.39 ± 0.71
3.70 ± 0.81
3.52 ± 0.96
3.48 ± 0.43
3.48 ± 0.51
3.63 ± 0.62
3.44 ± 0.57
3.65 ± 0.73
3.44 ± 0.92
3.46 ± 0.39
3.53 ± 0.41
3.71 ± 0.48
3.39 ± 0.46
Income (in RMB)
3.52 ± 0.77
3.33 ± 0.92
3.41 ± 0.45
3.43 ± 0.45
3.64 ± 0.55
3.35 ± 0.50
3.76 ± 0.80
3.53 ± 0.97
3.57 ± 0.50
3.57 ± 0.50
3.66 ± 0.58
3.35 ± 0.56
3.93 ± 0.59
3.84 ± 0.84
3.58 ± 0.34
3.60 ± 0.38
3.79 ± 0.50
3.56 ± 0.41
3.67 ± 0.77
3.48 ± 0.94
3.47 ± 0.41
3.50 ± 0.46
3.67 ± 0.55
3.42 ± 0.52
Health-promoting lifestyle and QOL
Correlations between variables for male and female participants
1. Quality of life
Criterion-related validity was indicated by significant correlations with concurrent measures of lifestyle and QOL. The overall HPLP-II and QOL scores showed a highly significant and reliable relationship (r = 0.602, p < 0.001), as did the overall HPLP-II and WHOQOL-BREF domain scores (r = 0.411–0.558, p < 0.001).
Multiple linear regression for quality of life by gender
Male (n = 171)
Female (n = 172)
Adjusted R 2
Various aspects of health-promoting lifestyles are important determinants of the QOL. Although the relationship between health-promoting lifestyles and physical health has been widely established, little is known about health-promoting lifestyles and the associated QOL for retired workers in Fushun City, a medium-sized city located in Northeastern China. The aim of the present study was identify the actual state of a healthy lifestyle of individuals and to examine its relationship with QOL. The results of the study should provide useful information to health professionals when designing health interventions to promote healthy practices for the general public in China.
In this study, the subjects achieved higher scores on the N and SG subscales, moderate scores on the SM subscale, and lower scores on the PA subscale; these results are consistent with those reported in the literature [30, 31]. Our study is the first to report that retired workers achieved the highest scores on the IR subscale (Table 2), with the highest score being for item 31 (“Touch and am touched by people I care about”; 3.20 ± 0.75), and the second highest for item 13 (“Maintain meaningful and fulfilling relationships with others”; 3.16 ± 0.66). These high scores may stem from Confucianism and other cultural influences that potentially lead to Chinese individuals emphasizing forbearance and interpersonal harmony—they are a warm, helpful, and cohesive population . On the other hand, all subjects had retired from the same enterprise, had worked together, and lived in the same community for a long time. Therefore, community health nurses may be encouraging the participants in our study to strengthen existing social support and acquire new social support, thus contributing to their general well-being.
The extent to which an individual contributes to his/her own health is his/her responsibility . In this study, the participants obtained the lowest scores for the HR subscale, which is worth emphasizing. One possible reason why these retired workers did not feel any desirable degree of health responsibility may be that aged people do not consider health controls as being necessary to lead a healthy life in this area. In general, if an individual does not perceive his/her health problems, he/she will not make an effort to promote his/her health . In China, especially in such regions as the rural and rural–urban fringe, if individuals can carry out their daily routines and if their health does not affect their work, they do not consider themselves as to be ill . It is thus particularly important for this population that not only is the health of individuals improved, but also that a proper healthy lifestyle is adopted.
Demographic features have been found to affect health promotion and lifestyle [36–38]. In our study, significant differences in the HPLP-II scores were found in the three age groups. The older population group obtained significantly lower scores than the younger population groups for the overall HPLP-II and for many of its subscales, such as SG, IR, and SM (Table 2). These findings are inconsistent with those reported previously [37, 39]. However, in China, the “empty nest” phenomenon has become increasingly prominent, with the number of empty-nest families increasing annually. As such, it has become one of the more important problems that cannot be ignored in the aging population . In addition, the unhealthy lifestyle of rural empty-nesters (e.g., watching television watching for ≥3 h per day) may seriously affect physical health, leading to the occurrence of many diseases . Therefore, it may be an important and urgent task for community nurses of Northeastern China to improve the health management of the older members of the general population in order to promote their health.
In terms of the association of gender with HPLP-II scores, females had higher scores for the HR, SG, IR, and N subscales and for the overall HPLP-II (Table 2), which is consistent with previous studies [13, 33]. However, there was no significant difference for PA between men and women (Table 2), which is also in accordance with previous studies [31, 42, 43]. This result is probably due to the specialty of the subjected populations who regularly utilize the activity center where they are actively involved in physical training and other activities. It is important to note that physical activity is strongly associated with self-rating health score. It has been reported that individuals who are physical inactive, as well as those who are underweight or obese are more likely to have a poor self-rated health score than other subjects . Regular exercise protects against poor mobility and poor self-rated health, while a lower activity level increases the hazard of death . These findings suggest that it is particularly important for the community to provide older individuals with a place for sports activities.
Regarding the association of income with HPLP-II and QOL, we found that the high income group had the highest scores for some subscales of the HPLP-II, for the overall HPLP-II, and for the QOL domains, whereas the lowest scores for the HPLP-II and QOL were found in the lowest income group (below ¥2,000) (Tables 2, 3). Similar results reported by other research groups also showed that physical health and material conditions (income and housing conditions) are the most important factors affecting the QOL of retired people . Heathcare organizations concerned with the QOL of retired people in China should thus address the need for an increased income and improved housing conditions. In addition, the growing concern over the present-day contradiction between low income and rising prices in China should also be considered in such analyses.
Male and female participants were shown to have different tendencies on the scores of lifestyle and QOL, as well as in the correlations between variables (Tables 4, 5). This difference might be explained by the gender role associated with certain types of behavior. For example, research has shown that masculinity is related to health behavior such as regular exercise  smoking, and drinking [48, 49]. Therefore, men might be more likely to engage in such behavior to emphasize their masculine gender role. In addition, in the Chinese culture, women are often categorized to assume a caregiving role while men are expected to receive care.
Our results suggest that an effective approach to maintain a desirable lifestyle and QOL for retired workers in a medium-sized city of Northeastern China would be to introduce daily activities to improve HR and to maintain and enhance social support for the low-income populations. Our results highlight the importance of identifying the correlates of lifestyle and QOL for different groups and examine why differences exist between these groups. In addition, improvements in the community service system should be a focus of community work in the future.
There are several limitations to our study. We recruited subjects by convenience through sampling visitors to the Retired Workers Activity Center (343 of the 1,497 retired workers participated in the survey; participation rate of 22.9 %). Individuals who often go to activity centers may have a relatively better lifestyle and QOL than those who do not. Thus, there may have been a selection bias in the sampling process. In addition, in our study, education and marital status did not significantly influence the score of lifestyle and QOL, and future investigations are thus necessary to clarify these points. Finally, further research is needed to understand the complex causal pathways between regional health and welfare factors, health behaviors, and QOL.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the staff of the Retired Workers Activity Center of the Liaoning power plant for their cooperation on-site during the process of data acquisition. We especially thank the East Asian Health Promotion Network Center (EAHP-net) for their support. This study was supported by Grants for Scientific Research of BSKY (No. 0303025101) from Anhui Medical University.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- World Health Organization (WHO). The world health report 2002. Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: WHO; 2002.Google Scholar
- Breslow L. From disease prevention to health promotion. JAMA. 1999;281(11):1030–3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sakurai H. Healthy Japan 21. JMAJ. 2003;46(2):47–9.Google Scholar
- Acton GJ, Malathum P. Basic need status and health-promoting self-care behavior in adults. West J Nurs Res. 2000;22(7):796–811.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Holahan CK, Suzuki R. Adulthood predictors of health promoting behavior in later aging. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2004;58(4):289–313.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dean K. Self-care components of lifestyles: the importance of gender, attitudes and the social situation. Soc Sci Med. 1989;29(2):137–52.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wagner EH, LaCroix AZ, Buchner DM, Larson EB. Effects of physical activity on health status in older adults. I: observational studies. Annu Rev Public Health. 1992;13:451–68.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- WHOQOL group. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): position paper from the World Health Organization. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41(10):1403–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anderson RB, Hollenberg NK, Williams GH. Physical Symptoms Distress Index: a sensitive tool to evaluate the impact of pharmacological agents on quality of life. Arch Inter Med. 1999;159(7):693–700.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ranzenhofer LM, Columbo KM, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Shomaker LB, Cassidy O, Matheson BE, et al. Binge eating and weight-related quality of life in obese adolescents. Nutrients. 2012;4(3):167–80.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Motl RW, Gosney JL. Effect of exercise training on quality of life in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Mul Scler. 2008;14(1):129–35.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mustalahti K, Lohiniemi S, Collin P, Vuolteenaho N, Laippala P, Maki M. Gluten-free diet and quality of life in patients with screen-detected celiac disease. Eff Clin Pract. 2002;5(3):105–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mo Phoenix KH, Winnie Mak WS. The influence of health promoting practices on the quality of life of community adults in Hong Kong. Soc Indic Res. 2010;95:503–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang H, Zhou J, Huang L, Li X, Fennie KP, Williams AB. Effects of nursedelivered home visits combined with telephone calls on medication adherence and quality of life in HIV-infected heroin users in Hunan of China. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:380–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mkangara OB, Wang C, Xiang H, Xu Y, Nie S, Liu L, et al. The univariate and bivariate impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life: a cross sectional study in the Hubei Province-Central China. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci. 2009;29:260–4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu HM, Ren XW, Chen Q, Zhao JY, Zhu TJ, Guo ZX. Quality of life of coal dust workers without pneumoconiosis in mainland China. J Occup Health. 2008;50:505–11.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Gao L, Zhang H, Zhao C, Shen Y, Shinfuku N. Post-earthquake quality of life and psychological well-being: longitudinal evaluation in a rural community sample in northern China. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;54:427–33.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Li Y, Zheng H, Hu K, Zhang H, Zhao L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture and moxibustion to treat Bell’s palsy according to different stages: design and protocol. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009;30:347–53.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Li X, Fang X, Xiong Q. Discrimination experience and quality of life among rural-to-urban migrants in China: the mediation effect of expectation-reality discrepancy. Qual Life Res. 2009;18:291–300.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong CK, Fung CS, Siu CS, Wong KW, Lo YY, Fong YY, et al. The impact of work nature, lifestyle, and obesity on health-related quality of life in Chinese professional drivers. J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54(8):989–94.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu J, Qiu J, Chen J, Zou L, Feng L, Lu Y, et al. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study among civil servants in China. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:330.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walker S, Sechrist K, Pender N. The health-promoting lifestyle profile: development and psychometric characteristics. Nurs Res. 1987;36(2):76–81.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang YJ, Wu LJ, Xia W, Sun CH, Wei CN, Ueda A. Reliability and validity of Chinese version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Sch Health. 2007;28(10):889–91.Google Scholar
- Al-Kandari F, Vidal VL, Thomas D. Health-promoting lifestyle and body mass index among college of nursing students in Kuwait: a correlational study. Nurs Health Sci. 2008;10:43–50.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. Geneva: WHO; 2004.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-100. Field Trial WHOQOL-100. Geneva: WHO; 1995.Google Scholar
- da Silva-Lima AF, Fleck M, Pechansky F, de Boni R, Sukop P. Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) in alcoholic males: a pilot study. Qual Life Res. 2005;14:473–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berlim MT, Pavanello DP, Caldieraro MA, Fleck MP. Reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in a sample of Brazilian outpatients with major depression. Qual Life Res. 2005;14:561–4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skevington SM, Lotfy M, O’Connell KA. The World Health Organization’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Qual Life Res. 2004;13:299–310.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bu XM, Su LR, Cao LJ. Health-promoting lifestyle and the influencing factors in elderly people of urban community (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Clin Rehabil. 2005;24:1086–8.Google Scholar
- Huang SL, Li RH, Tang FC. Comparing disparities in the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese workers in various occupations. Ind Health. 2010;48(3):256–64.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shek DTL. Introduction: quality of life of Chinese people in a changing world. Soc Indic Res. 2010;95:357–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ayse B, Zuhal B, Dilek B. Health promoting behaviors and factors related to lifestyle among Turkish workers and occupational health nurses responsibilities in their health promoting activities. Ind Health. 2007;45:151–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Delaney FG. Nursing and health promotion; conceptual concerns. J Adv Nurs. 1994;20:828–35.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li DM, Chen TY, Wu ZY. Quality of life and subjective well-being of the aged in Chinese countryside (in Chinese with English abstract). Chin J Gerontol. 2007;27(12):1193–6.Google Scholar
- Esperat C, Du Feng, Yan Zhang, Owen D. Health behaviors of low-income pregnant minority women. West J Nurs Res. 2007;29:284–300.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen YC, Wu HP, Hwang SJ, Li IC. Exploring the components of metabolic syndrome with respect to gender difference and its relationship to health-promoting lifestyle behaviour: a study in Taiwanese urban communities. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(21–22):3031–41.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Resnick B. Health promotion practices of older adults model testing. Public Health Nurs. 2003;20:2–12.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang SC, Wei CN, Fukumoto K, Harada K, Ueda K, Ueda A, et al. A comparative study of health-promoting lifestyles in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in Japan. Environ Health Prev Med. 2011;16(2):80–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou CC, Chu J, Xu LZ. Considering anew on health problems of Chinese cities in initial stages of 21st century (in Chinese with English abstract). Med Philos: Humanist Soc Med Ed. 2006;27(5):19–21.Google Scholar
- Zhu XH, Yu CM, Jiang WL, Sun HQ, Qiu LZ, Sun CX. Investigation on the healthy status of the elderly in empty-nest family and community nursing need (in Chinese with English abstract). J Nurs Sci. 2006;21(15):69–70.Google Scholar
- Moore S, Kramer F. Women’s and men’s preferences for cardiac rehabilitation program features. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1996;16(3):163–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robbins LB, Pender NJ, Conn VS, Freen MD, Neuberger GB, Nies MA, et al. Physical activity research in nursing. J Nurs Scholars. 2001;33(4):315–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Molarius A, Berglund K, Eriksson C, Lambe M, Nordström E, Eriksson HG, Feldman I. Socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle factors, and self-rated health among men and women in Sweden. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17(2):125–33.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fillenbaum GG, Burchett BM, Kuchibhatla MN, Cohen HJ, Blazer DG. Effect of cancer screening and desirable health behaviors on functional status, self-ratedhealth, health service use and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(1):66–74.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fu ZJ, Shang R, Zhao P, Huan MY. Study on evaluation system of life quality of retired people in university. J Yunnan Agric Univ. 2012;6(4):34–9.Google Scholar
- Eisler RM, Skidmore JR, Ward CH. Masculine gender-role stress: predictor of anger, anxiety, and health-risk behaviors. J Pers Assess. 1988;52(1):133–41.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Evans RI, Turner SH, Ghee KL, Getz JG. Is androgynous sex role related to cigarette smoking in adolescents? J Appl Soc Psychol. 1990;20(6):494–505.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peralta RL. College alcohol use and the embodiment of hegemonic masculinity among European American men. Sex Roles. 2007;56(11–12):741–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar