World Health Organization (WHO). First WHO report on suicide prevention 2014. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/suicide-prevention-report/en/. Accessed 22 Apr 2021.
Benjet C, Menendez D, Albor Y, Borges G, Orozco R, Medina-Mora ME. Adolescent predictors of incidence and persistence of suicide-related outcomes in young adulthood: a longitudinal study of mexican youth. Suicide Life-Threat. 2018;48(6):755–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12397.
Li D, Li X, Wang Y, Bao Z. Parenting and Chinese adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: the mediating role of hopelessness. J Child Fam Stud. 2016;25(5):1397–407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0334-0.
Turecki G, Brent DA. Suicide and suicidal behaviour. Lancet. 2016;387(10024):1227–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)00234-2.
Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Queen B. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2017. Mmwr Suppl. 2018;59(SS-5):1–168. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6708a1.
Zhang P, Roberts RE, Liu Z, Meng X, Tang J, Sun L, Yu Y. Hostility, physical aggression and trait anger as predictors for suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents: a school- based study. PLoS One. 2012;7(2): e31044. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.Pone.0031044.
Hallfors DD, Waller MW, Ford CA, Halpern C, Brodish PH, Iritani B. Adolescent depression and suicide risk: association with sex and drug behavior. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(3):224–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.06.001.
Han MA, Kim KS, Ryu SY, Kang MG, Park J. Associations between smoking and alcohol drinking and suicidal behavior in Korean adolescents: Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance, 2006. Prev Med. 2009;49(2–3):248–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.06.014.
Hockenberry JM, Timmons EJ, Vander Weg M. Smoking, parent smoking, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation in teens. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(3):235–42. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntp199.
Poorolajal J, Darvishi N. Smoking and suicide: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(7): e0156348. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156348.
Mitchell SH. Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Psychopharmacology. 1999;146(4):455–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00005491.
Benwell ME, Balfour DJ, Anderson JM. Smoking associated changes in the serotonergic systems of discrete regions of human brain. Psychopharmacology. 1990;102(1):68–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02245746.
Malone KM, Waternaux C, Haas GL, Cooper TB, Li S, Mann JJ. Cigarette smoking, suicidal behavior, and serotonin function in major psychiatric disorders. Am J Psychiat. 2003;160(4):773–9. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.773.
Olweus D. School bullying: development and some important challenges. Annu Rev Clin Psycho. 2013;9:751–80. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-1885516.
Peng Z, Klomek AB, Li L, Su X, Sillanmäki L, Chudal R, Sourander A. Associations between Chinese adolescents subjected to traditional and cyber bullying and suicidal ideation, self-harm and suicide attempts. BMC Psychiatry. 2019;19(1):324. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2319-9.
Tang JJ, Yu Y, Wilcox HC, Kang C, Wang K, Wang C, Wu Y, Chen R. Global risks of suicidal behaviours and being bullied and their association in adolescents: school-based health survey in 83 countries. EClinicalMedicine. 2020;19: 100253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.100253.
Gereš N, Orpinas P, Rodin U, Štimac-Grbić D, Mujkić A. Bullying and attitudes toward masculinity in croatian schools: behavioral and emotional characteristics of students who bully others. J Interpers Violence. 2018;1:886260518777011. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518777011.
William E, Copeland Dieter W, Adrian A, Costello EJ. Adult psychiatric and suicide outcomes of bullying and being bullied by peers in childhood and adolescence. Jama Psychiat. 2013;70:419. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.504.
Ortega R, Elipe P, Mora-Merchán JA, Genta ML, Brighi A, Guarini A, Smith PK, Thompson F, Tippett N. The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: a European cross-national study. Aggressive Behav. 2012;38(5):342–56. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21440.
Turner HA, Shattuck A, Finkelhor D, Hamby S. Effects of polyvictimization on adolescent social support, self-concept, and psychological distress. J Interpers Violence. 2015;32(5):755–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515586376.
Han Z, Fu M, Liu C, Guo J. Bullying and suicidality in urban chinese youth the role of teacher-student relationships. Cyberpsych Beh Soc N. 2018;21(5):287–93. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2017.0484.
Zhang X, Li Y, Zhang Q, Lu F, Wang Y. Smoking and its risk factors in Chinese elementary and middle school students: a nationally representative sample study. Addic Behav. 2014;39(5):837–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.01.025.
Crookston BT, Merrill RM, Hedges S, Lister C, West JH, Hall PC. Victimization of peruvian adolescents and health risk behaviors: young lives cohort. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-85.
Azagba S. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students. Prev Med. 2016;b85:69–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.01.006.
Kann L, Mcmanus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Zaza S. Youth risk behavior surveillance United States, 2015. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016;B65(6):1–174. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6506a1.
Brener ND, Billy JO, Grady WR. Assessment of factors affecting the validity of self-reported health-risk behavior among adolescents: Evidence from the scientific literature. J Adolescent Health. 2003;33(6):436–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(03)00052-1.
Brener ND, Kann L, Shanklin S, Kinchen S, Eaton DK, Hawkins J, Flint KH. Methodology of the youth risk behavior surveillance system--2013. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-1):1–20. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm695152a7externalicon.
Liu XC, Chen H, Liu ZZ, Wang JY, Jia CX. Prevalence of suicidal behaviour and associated factors in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. Epidemiol Psych Sci. 2019;28(3):280–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796017000488.
Kaess M, Parzer P, Haffner J, Steen R, Roos J, Klett M, Brunner R, Resch F. Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:597. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-597.
Bronfenbrenner U. Toward an experimental ecology of human-development. Am Psychol. 1977;32:513–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513.
Conger RD, Donnellan MB. An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annu Rev Psychol. 2007;58:175–99. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085551.
McManimen S, Wong MM. Prospective investigation of the interaction between social problems and neuropsychological characteristics on the development of suicide ideation. Suicide Life-Threat. 2020;50(2):545–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12608.
Xi B, Liang Y, Liu Y, Yan Y, Zhao M, Ma C, Bovet P. Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12–15 years: data from 68 low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(11):e795–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(16)30187-5.
Dessaix A, Maag A, McKenzie J, Currow DC. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents. Public Health Res Pract. 2016;26(1):e2611605. https://doi.org/10.17061/phrp2611605.
White VM, Durkin SJ, Coomber K, Wakefield MA. What is the role of tobacco control advertising intensity and duration in reducing adolescent smoking prevalence? Findings from 16 years of tobacco control mass media advertising in Australia. Tob Control. 2015;24(2):198–204. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050945.
Yang T, Rockett IR, Li M, Xu X, Gu Y. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas. Drug Alcohol Depen. 2012;124(1–2):121–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.021.
Wang M, Luo X, Xu S, Liu W, Ding F, Zhang X, Wang L, Liu J, Hu J, Wang W. Trends in smoking prevalence and implication for chronic diseases in China: serial national cross-sectional surveys from 2003 to 2013. Lancet Resp Med. 2019;7(1):35–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600(18)30432-6.
Banzer R, Haring C, Buchheim A, Oehler S, Carli V, Wasserman C, Wasserman D. Factors associated with different smoking status in European adolescents: results of the SEYLE study. Eur Child Adoles Psy. 2017;26(11):1319–29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-0980-4.
Modecki KL, Minchin J, Harbaugh AG, Guerra NG, Runions KC. Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying. J Adolescent Health. 2014;55(5):602–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.06.007.
Wang H, Zhou X, Lu C, Wu J, Deng X, Hong L, Gao X, He Y. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China. PLoS One. 2012;7(1): e38619. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038619.
Alikasifoglu M, Erginoz E, Ercan O, Uysal O, Albayrak-Kaymak D. Bullying behaviours and psychosocial health: results from a cross-sectional survey among high school students in Istanbul. Turkey Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166(12):1253–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-006-0411-x.
Pontes NMH, Ayres CG, Pontes MCF. Additive interactions between gender and bullying victimization on depressive symptoms and suicidality: Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011–2015. Nurs Res. 2018;67(6):430–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000310.
Weiss JW, Mouttapa M, Cen S, Johnson CA, Unger J. Longitudinal effects of hostility, depression, and bullying on adolescent smoking initiation. J Adolescent Health. 2011;48(6):591–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.09.012.
Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Wa C, Matlow R, Ramo DE, Hall SM. Tobacco use and its treatment among young people in mental health settings: a qualitative analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15(8):1427–35. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts343.
Rohleder N, Kirschbaum C. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in habitual smokers. Int J Psychophysiol. 2006;59(3):236–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.10.012.
Mann JJ, Currier D, Stanley B, Oquendo MA, Amsel LV, Ellis SP. Can biological tests assist prediction of suicide in mood disorders? Int J Neuropsychoph. 2006;9(4):465–74. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1461145705005687.
Coryell W, Schlesser M. The dexamethasone suppression test and suicide prediction. Am J Psychiat. 2001;158(5):748–53. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.5.748.
Ouellet-Morin I, Danese A, Bowes L, Shakoor S, Ambler A, Pariante CM, Arseneault L. A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children. J Am Acad Child Psy. 2011;50(6):574-582.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.11.02.015.