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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of all participants and each group

From: Long-term participation in community-based group resistance exercises delays the transition from robustness to frailty in older adults: a retrospective cohort study

  All Short-term Mid-term Long-term  
  n = 2567 n = 1553 n = 635 n = 379  
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P value
Times of physical test (times) 3.4 (2.5) 1.7 (0.8) 4.8 (0.8) 8.2 (1.2) <0.001
Duration of observation (years) 2.4 (2.5) 0.8 (1.2) 3.8 (1.6) 6.4 (1.2) <0.001
Age (years old) 74.2 (8.0) 74.4 (8.5) 74.2 (7.2) 73.6 (6.7) 0.133
Sex
 Male (people) 434 (16.9%) 276 (17.8%) 95 (15.0%) 63 (16.6%)  
 Female (people) 2133 (83.1%) 1277 (82.2%) 540 (85.0%) 316 (83.4%) 0.275
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 140.6 (19.5) 140.3 (19.3) 140.7 (19.8) 141.1 (19.9) 0.773
Pulse rate (times/minute) 78.1 (12.0) 78.1 (12.2) 78.0 (11.4) 78.0 (12.0) 0.979
Subscore of KCL
IADL (0–5) 3.8 (2.8) 3.9 (2.9) 3.6 (2.5) 3.3 (2.3) <0.001
Oral function (0–3) 0.8 (0.9) 0.8 (0.9) 0.8 (0.9) 0.8 (0.9) 0.308
Physical function (0–5) 1.4 (1.2) 1.5 (1.3) 1.4 (1.2) 1.3 (1.2) 0.043
Cognitive function (0–3) 0.7 (0.8) 0.7 (0.8) 0.6 (0.7) 0.6 (0.8) 0.159
Depression (0–5) 1.1 (1.4) 1.1 (1.4) 1.0 (1.3) 1.0 (1.4) 0.057
Nutrition (0–2) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) 0.2 (0.4) 0.017
Houseboundness (0–2) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) 0.2 (0.4) 0.013
Total KCL score (0–25) 4.9 (3.7) 5.1 (3.8) 4.6 (3.4) 4.2 (3.3) <0.001
  1. KCL Kihon Checklist, IADL instrumental activities of daily living