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Table 2 Associations between occupational factors and the downloading of the COVID-19 contact tracing app

From: Industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of a COVID-19 contact tracing app in Japan: a nation-wide cross-sectional study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P-value
Industry
 Manufacturing 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Public service 1.41 (1.25–1.58) < 0.001 1.32 (1.17–1.49) < 0.001 1.29 (1.14–1.45) < 0.001
 Information technology 1.39 (1.21–1.58) < 0.001 1.36 (1.18–1.55) < 0.001 1.38 (1.20–1.58) < 0.001
 Retail and wholesale 0.83 (0.73–0.94) 0.004 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 0.034 0.92 (0.81–1.05) 0.223
 Food/beverage 0.76 (0.66–0.89) < 0.001 0.81 (0.70–0.94) 0.007 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 0.125
 Medical and welfare 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 0.201 0.86 (0.78–0.94) 0.004 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.068
 Finance 1.26 (1.09–1.45) 0.001 1.19 (1.03–1.38) 0.016 1.15 (0.99–1.32) 0.061
 Construction 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 0.999 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 0.845 1.10 (0.93–1.30) 0.271
 Other 0.92 (0.84–0.99) 0.034 0.94 (0.87–1.03) 0.175 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.807
Company size
 1–9 employees 1.00 1.00 1.00
 10–49 employees 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 0.063 1.04 (0.94–1.14) 0.453 1.03 (0.97–1.11) 0.329
 50–999 employees 1.36 (1.25–1.46) < 0.001 1.24 (1.14–1.34) < 0.001 1.22 (1.13–1.33) < 0.001
 ≥ 1000 employees 1.71 (1.57–1.85) < 0.001 1.52 (1.39–1.65) < 0.001 1.44 (1.32–1.57) < 0.001
Occupation*
 Permanent employee 1.00 1.00    
 Manager 1.62 (1.48–1.76) < 0.001 1.40 (1.28–1.53) < 0.001    
 Civil servant 1.34 (1.23–1.47) < 0.001 1.22 (1.11–1.34) < 0.001    
 Dispatched or contact worker 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.277 1.02 (0.92–1.12) 0.769    
 Self-employed 0.72 (0.64–0.80) < 0.001 0.76 (0.69–0.85) < 0.001    
 Other 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 0.290 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 0.033    
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for sex and age
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for sex, age, income, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol intake, and anxiety about contracting COVID-19
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for sex, age, income, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol intake, anxiety about contracting COVID-19, type of industry, and company size
  5. *The occupation variables were not included in Model 3 because of the high correlations between the occupation of civil servant and the public service industry and between self-employed occupation and company size of 1–9 employees