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Table 2 General characteristics of study participants according to urinary bisphenol A concentrations

From: The association between urinary bisphenol A levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean adults: Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015-2017

  Quartile 1 (n = 888) Quartile 2 (n = 880) Quartile 3 (n = 860) Quartile 4 (n = 848) P value
Age (year) 47.60 ± 0.96 47.23 ± 0.93 47.08 ± 0.88 45.82 ± 0.74 0.135
Gender (%, men) 43.98 ± 1.87 45.03 ± 1.83 50.84 ± 2.24 56.02 ± 1.91 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.87 ± 0.14 24.17 ± 0.16 24.61 ± 0.19 24.73 ± 0.17 < 0.001
Drinking status (%)      0.056
 Never 17.13 ± 1.80 17.37 ± 1.73 14.72 ± 1.51 13.71 ± 1.46  
 Former 11.64 ± 1.34 12.83 ± 1.59 10.27 ± 1.59 10.91 ± 1.38  
 Current 71.21 ± 2.08 69.77 ± 2.11 75.00 ± 1.95 75.37 ± 1.98  
Smoking status (%)      < 0.001
 Never 70.06 ± 1.71 65.52 ± 1.91 59.79 ± 2.53 58.71 ± 2.42  
 Former 16.16 ± 1.51 18.49 ± 1.67 20.25 ± 1.80 18.24 ± 1.83  
 Current 13.77 ± 1.76 15.97 ± 2.09 20.24 ± 1.82 23.03 ± 2.10  
Physical activity (%)      0.099
 No 52.75 ± 2.34 54.60 ± 2.46 54.01 ± 2.34 60.38 ± 2.05  
 Moderate 9.68 ± 1.42 6.44 ± 1.07 7.71 ± 1.19 5.79 ± 0.96  
 Vigorous 37.56 ± 2.61 38.95 ± 2.42 38.27 ± 2.16 33.82 ± 2.15  
Monthly household income (%) 0.943
 < 2 million Korean Won 28.53 ± 2.63 27.09 ± 2.42 25.90 ± 1.89 28.94 ± 2.66  
 2-3 million Korean Won 19.55 ± 2.32 25.18 ± 2.14 22.59 ± 2.14 20.34 ± 1.97  
 3-5 million Korean Won 30.38 ± 2.72 25.97 ± 2.53 30.14 ± 2.19 29.79 ± 2.72  
 > 5 million Korean Won 21.52 ± 2.64 21.75 ± 2.34 21.35 ± 2.33 20.91 ± 2.14  
Education (%)      0.996
 < High school 22.41 ± 2.26 20.30 ± 1.90 21.73 ± 1.92 20.25 ± 1.82  
 High school 35.01 ± 2.13 38.62 ± 2.07 38.93 ± 2.64 38.25 ± 2.32  
 College and more 42.56 ± 2.71 41.07 ± 2.21 39.33 ± 2.66 41.49 ± 2.53  
Marital status (%)      0.797
 Single 21.02 ± 2.29 21.65 ± 2.18 20.27 ± 2.25 22.42 ± 2.14  
 Married 71.13 ± 2.35 69.49 ± 2.39 71.26 ± 2.33 69.69 ± 2.23  
 Divorced or separated 7.84 ± 1.16 8.85 ± 1.26 8.45 ± 1.32 7.87 ± 1.13  
AST 25.57 ± 0.35 24.79 ± 0.32 25.90 ± 0.82 25.42 ± 0.45 0.048
ALT 24.70 ± 0.62 24.09 ± 0.67 25.91 ± 1.19 26.26 ± 0.72 0.729
γ-GTP 28.18 ± 1.25 28.49 ± 1.25 32.20 ± 1.88 32.57 ± 1.87 0.015
Comorbidity (%)      
 Hypertension 16.78 ± 1.21 17.06 ± 1.62 17.29 ± 1.40 14.40 ± 1.54 0.257
 Diabetes mellitus 6.44 ± 0.98 4.65 ± 0.63 6.02 ± 1.13 7.39 ± 1.10 0.359
 Hyperlipidemia 27.92 ± 2.11 30.54 ± 2.00 31.41 ± 2.56 34.44 ± 2.12 0.025
  1. BMI body mass index, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, γ-GTP, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Data were shown as the weighted mean or frequency ± standard errors as appropriated