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Table 1 General characteristics of study participants according to hepatic steatosis index score

From: The association between urinary bisphenol A levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean adults: Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015-2017

  Total (n = 3476) non-NAFLD (n = 2561) NAFLD (n = 915) p value
Age, year 52.96 ± 0.25 52.67 ± 0.29 53.78 ± 0.46 0.090
Gender (%, men) 1474 (42.41) 1070 (41.78) 404 (44.15) 0.213
BMI, kg/m2 24.61 ± 0.05 23.23 ± 0.04 28.47±0.10 < 0.001
Drinking status, n (%)     0.018
 Never 715 (20.57) 502 (19.60) 213 (23.28)  
 Former 439 (12.63) 314 (12.26) 125 (13.66)  
 Current 2322 (66.80) 1745 (68.14) 577 (63.06)  
Smoking status, n (%)     0.727
 Never 2278 (65.54) 1667 (65.48) 602 (65.68)  
 Former 679 (19.53) 507 (19.80) 172 (18.80)  
 Current 519 (14.93) 377 (14.72) 142 (15.52)  
Physical activity, n (%)     0.005
 No 1888 (54.32) 1350 (52.71) 538 (58.80)  
 Moderate 274 (7.88) 205 (8.00) 69 (7.54)  
 Vigorous 1314 (37.80) 1006 (39.28) 308 (33.66)  
Monthly household income, n (%)     0.037
 < 2 million Korean Won 1308 (37.63) 944 (36.86) 364 (39.78)  
 2-3 million Korean Won 733 (21.09) 523 (20.42) 210 (22.95)  
 3-5 million Korean Won 873 (25.12) 662 (25.93) 209 (22.84)  
 > 5 million Korean Won 562 (16.17) 430 (16.79) 132 (14.43)  
Education, n (%)     < 0.001
 < High school 1172 (33.72) 800 (31.24) 372 (40.66)  
 High school 1220 (35.10) 941 (36.74) 279 (30.49)  
 College or higher 10.84 (31.19) 820 (32.02) 264 (28.85)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.043
 Single 397 (11.42) 310 (12.10) 87 (9.51)  
 Married 2681 (77.13) 1971 (76.96) 710 (77.60)  
 Divorced or separated 398 (11.45) 280 (10.93) 118 (12.90)  
AST 25.97 ± 0.17 24.95 ± 0.18 28.84 ± 0.41 < 0.001
ALT 24.86 ± 0.26 20.82 ± 0.18 36.17 ± 0.74 < 0.001
γ-GTP 29.78 ± 0.57 26.00 ± 0.61 40.36 ± 1.29 < 0.001
Comorbidity, n (%)     
 Hypertension 798 (22.96) 474 (18.51) 324 (35.41) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 309 (8.89) 146 (5.70) 163 (17.81) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 1211 (34.84) 734 (28.66) 477 (52.13) < 0.001
  1. NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, BMI body mass index, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, γ-GTP gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase