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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects

From: Correlation between estimated plasma remnant-like particle cholesterol and vegetable fat intake in Uku town, Japan

  Male (n = 94) Female (n = 131) Total (n = 225)
Age (years) 69.2 ± 7.2 68.9 ± 8.3 69.0 ± 7.9
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.2 23.9 ± 3.8 24.1 ± 3.5
Waist circumference (cm) 86.2 ± 8.9 84.2 ± 9.4 85.0 ± 9.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139.1 ± 18.9 136.1 ± 19.0 137.4 ± 18.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.2 ± 11.3* 75.2 ± 9.7 76.5 ± 10.5
Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 16.1 ± 4.2 16.2 ± 4.7 16.1 ± 4.5
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.83 ± 0.16*** 0.68 ± 0.23 0.74 ± 0.21
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 73.6 ± 15.9 69.7 ± 17.1 71.3 ± 16.7
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.9 ± 1.2*** 4.8 ± 1.0 5.2 ± 1.1
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 102.7 ± 15.6*** 92.3 ± 10.6 96.7 ± 13.9
Insulin (μU/mL) 4.7 (1.1–19.9) 4.4 (1.1–17.5) 4.5 (1.1–19.9)
HOMA-IR (min-max) 1.17 (0.27–5.94) 0.99 (0.24–4.74) 1.07 (0.24–5.94)
Hemoglobin A1c (NGSP%) 5.63 ± 0.42 5.58 ± 0.37 5.60 ± 0.39
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 187.1 ± 31.5 208.7 ± 35.4*** 199.6 ± 35.4
LDL-C (mg/dL) 105.5 ± 26.7 120.7 ± 30.7*** 114.3 ± 30.0
HDL-C (mg/dL) 62.1 ± 16.7** 68.9 ± 16.4 66.0 ± 16.8
Triglycerides (mg/dL) (min-max) 94.6 (32–338) 88.0 (28–306) 90.7 (28–338)
RLP-C (mg/dL)a (min-max) 3.9 (1.2–18.9) 4.1 (1.4–23.6) 4.0 (1.2–23.6)
Estimated RLP-C (mg/dL)a (min-max) 16.6 (3–74) 16.3 (3–100) 16.4 (3–100)
Lipoprotein (a) (mg/dL)a (min-max) 6.2 (1–63) 8.8 (1–107)* 7.6 (1–107)
Apolipoprotein A-I (mg/dL) 157.0 ± 28.2 169.4 ± 29.5** 164.2 ± 29.6
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL) 86.3 ± 10.0 91.7 ± 20.0* 89.4 ± 19.7
Apolipoprotein C-III (mg/dL) 9.57 ± 3.57 9.64 ± 2.69 9.61 ± 3.08
Apolipoprotein E (mg/dL) 4.15 ± 1.02 4.83 ± 1.18*** 4.55 ± 1.16
Smoking (%, yes) 23.4 (n = 22)*** 0.8 (n = 1) 10.2 (n = 23)
Alcohol (%, yes) 63.8 (n = 60)*** 9.2 (n = 12) 32.0 (n = 72)
HT medication (%, yes) 71.2 (n = 67)* 58.8 (n = 77) 64.0 (n = 144)
DM medication (%, yes) 14.9 (n = 14) 9.2 (n = 12) 11.6 (n = 26)
DL medication (%, yes) 46.8 (n = 44) 59.5 (n = 78)* 54.2 (n = 122)
Energy (kcal/day) 2078.3 ± 516.9 1678.7 ± 471.0 1845.6 ± 527.9
Animal protein (g/day) 44.2 ± 19.0 40.5 ± 21.2 42.1 ± 20.4
Vegetable protein (g/day) 32.0 ± 9.7 28.4 ± 8.4 29.9 ± 9.1
Animal fat (g/day) 28.1 ± 12.5 25.5 ± 12.4 26.6 ± 12.5
Vegetable fat (g/day) 30.2 ± 10.3 29.0 ± 11.7 29.5 ± 11.1
Carbohydrate (g/day) 264.8 ± 76.3 219.4 ± 59.3 238.4 ± 70.5
Saturated fatty acid (g/day) 15.4 ± 6.5 14.6 ± 6.5 14.9 ± 6.5
Monounsaturated fatty acid (g/day) 20.6 ± 7.2 19.4 ± 8.0 19.9 ± 7.6
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g/day) 14.6 ± 4.4 13.4 ± 4.8 13.9 ± 4.7
  1. SE standard error, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RLP-C remnant-like particle cholesterol, HT hypertension, DM diabetes, DL dyslipidemia
  2. Data are means ± standard deviation or percentage, unless otherwise indicated
  3. aLog-transformed values were used for the statistical calculation and reconverted to antilogarithm forms in the tables
  4. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001