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Table 1 Studies of the low to medium arsenic water concentration exposure and lung cancer risk

From: Paradoxical effects of arsenic in the lungs

Country/region Arsenic concentration (μg/L) Evaluation index Outcome Conclusion
North-west China [38] 7.61–9.25 Lifetime lung cancer risks 3.54 × 10−5 Related
Central Italy [6] 19.3 (mean) HR Lung cancer (HR = 2.6 male; HR = 2.09 female) Related
The USA [37] 6.91–13.32
> 13.32
RR 0.94 (0.51–1.72)
1.82 (1.00–3.31)
Related
Northern Chile [39] < 11, 11–90, 91-335 OR (95% CI) 1.00, 1.27 (0.81–1.98), 2.00 (1.24–3.24) Related
Northern Chile [7] 10-29, 30–49, 50–199 OR (95% CI) 1.60 (0.50–5.30), 3.90 (1.20–12.30), 5.20 (2.30–11.70) Related
The USA [12] 3-59 SMR 0.9 Unrelated
The USA [40] 10, 11–84, > 85 RR (95% CI) 1.00,0.75 (0.45–1.25), 0.84 (0.41–1.72) Unrelated
North-eastern Taiwan [41] 10–49.9, 50–99.9 RR (95% CI) 1.10 (0.74–1.63)
0.99 (0.59–1.68)
Unrelated
Bangladesh [42] 0–10, 11–50, 51–100 RR (95% CI) 1.00, 0.90 (0.62–1.33), 1.10 (0.62–1.96) Unrelated
  1. SMR, standardized mortality ratio; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk; HR, hazard ratio