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Table 5 Summary of cardiometabolic effects from in vivo models (13 studies)

From: Air pollution and children’s health—a review of adverse effects associated with prenatal exposure from fine to ultrafine particulate matter

Reference Animal model PM source Dose Route Duration Offspring effects
Weldy et al. [99] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust PM2.5 300 μg/m3 Inhalation 3 weeks prior to mating; duration same through gestation (6 h/day, 5 days/week) Increased susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, systolic failure, myocardial fibrosis, pulmonary congestion
Gorr et al. [64] FVB mice PM2.5 51.69 μg/m3 Inhalation GD0-PND21 (6 h/day, 7 days/week) Reduced birth weight; reduced left ventricular fractional shortening; reduced ejection fraction; increased end-systolic volume; reduced dP/dt maximum; reduced peak shortening; slower calcium reuptake; reduced response to B-adrenergic stimulation; increased collagen deposition
Wei et al. [54] Sprague Dawley rats Ambient air 73.5 +/− 61.3 μg/m3 Inhalation 19 days (24 h/day) Increased body weight; peribronchiolar and perivascular inflammation; increased systemic and oxidative stress; dyslipidemia; increased inflammatory status of epididymal fat
Stephenson et al. [75] C57BL/6J mice Ultrafine PM MCP-230 50 μL Oropharyngeal GD10 and GD 17 (once/day) Reduced skeletal muscle mtDNA copy number; lower mRNA levels of electron transport genes; reduced citrate synthase activity; upregulation of genes in reducing oxidative stress in muscle
Tanwar et al. [65] FVB mice PM2.5 73.61 μg/m3 Inhalation Gestation (6 h/day, 7 days/week) Reduced fractional shortening; increased left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters; reduced ventricular posterior wall thickness; end-systolic elastance; contractile reverse; increased collagen deposition; increases in cardiac IL-6, IL-1B, collagen-1, MMP9, and MMP13 gene expression
Goodson et al. [124] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust 300 μg/m3 Inhalation Gestation (6 h/day, 5 days/week) Dysregulated gene expression of Mir133a-2, Ptprf, Pamr1; promoter of Mir133a-2 differentially methylated
Harrigan et al. [100] C57Bl/6 (ApoE−/−) mice Diesel exhaust particles PM2.5 250-300 μg/m3 Inhalation Gestation (6 h/day, 5 days/week) Smaller litter and increased postnatal mortality; no significant differences in plasma lipids or lipoprotein profiles, expression of antioxidant genes or markers of oxidative stress between groups; no sig. differences in atherosclerotic lesion area
Chen et al. [86] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust particles PM2.5 160 μg/m3 Intratracheal 7-week preconception period, whole gestation, and lactational periods (3 times/week) Impaired adult male offspring glucose tolerance; no influence in insulin sensitivity for adult male offspring; decreased insulin secretion; decrease in pancreatic islet and Beta cell sizes
Ye et al. [125] Sprague Dawley rats PM2.5 1 mg/kg BW Oropharyngeal GD8, 10, 12 (once/day) Increased blood pressure; impaired sodium excretion; reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis; increased D1R and GRK4 expression
Wu et al. [69] Sprague Dawley rats Ultrafine PM (10-20 nm diameter; ammonium sulfate particles) 150 μg/m3 Inhalation GD0-GD18 Increased stillbirths; reduced gestation length and birth weight; increased concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids in plasma; increased lipid accumulation in liver; decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation of aorta
Morales-Rubio et al. [92] C57BL/6J mice Ultrafine PM (< 60 nm) 50 μL UFP followed by 200 μL air (400 μg/kg BW) Intratracheal GD6.5, 8.5, 10.5, 12.5, 14.5, 16.5 (once/day) Increased embryo reabsorption; decreases in uterus, placental, and fetal weights; HSD11B2 hypermethylation and protein downregulation; increases in PAH enzymes; activation of AT1R and ACE in PND50 resulting in increased blood pressure
Woodward et al. [80] C57BL/6J mice Ultrafine PM (< 100 nm) 343 μg/m3 Inhalation Gestation (5 h/day, 3 days/week) Increased food intake, body weight, fat mass, adiposity, glucose intolerance; dysregulation of neuropeptides in hypothalamus; decreased expression of insulin receptor signaling genes in adipose
Xie et al. [90] C57BL/6J mice PM2.5 0.3 mg/kg/day Oral GD0-GD18 (once/2 days) Reduced BW in adult males after 6 weeks; reduced adipocytesize in eWAT compared to BAT; decreased expression of ACC1, ACSL1, PPAR-a in eWAT; decreased expression of TNF-a, IL-1B, IL-6; reduction of LPC, PC, PE, SM, Cer.
  1. GD gestational day, BW body weight