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Table 2 Summary of developmental effects from in vivo models (7 studies)

From: Air pollution and children’s health—a review of adverse effects associated with prenatal exposure from fine to ultrafine particulate matter

Reference Animal model PM source Dose Route Duration Offspring effects
Tsukue et al. [101] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg DEP/m3 Inhalation 4 months pre-mating exposure (12 h/day 7 days/week) Decreased BW in both sexes; AGD lengths shorter; organ weights less, and vaginal orifices of young females opened significantly earlier (exposed to 0.3 and 1.0 mg DEP/m3)
Hougaard et al. [81] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust particles ~19 mg/m3 Inhalation GD9–GD19 (1 h/day) Decreased weight gain during lactation; cognitive function and biomarkers were generally similar across offspring
Gorr et al. [64] FVB mice PM2.5 51.69 μg/m3 Inhalation Gestation/nursing (6 h/day, 7 days/week in utero until weaning at 3 weeks of age) Reduced birth weight; at adulthood: reduced left ventricular fractional shortening; reduced ejection fraction; increased end-systolic volume; and reduced dP/dt maximum and minimum; alerted cardiomyocytes profiles; increased collagen deposition
Liu et al. [89] Sprague Dawley rats PM2.5 15 mg/kg Intratracheal GD10 and GD18 Increased absorbed blastocysts; lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight; significant increase of blood mono- nuclear cells, platelets, and IL-6; placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis
Chen et al. [66] C57BL/6J mice Diesel exhaust particles 8.6 μg/mouse (~160 μg/m3) Intratracheal 3 times/week (M/W/F) beginning at 5 weeks and ending at weaning. (as mating started at 12 weeks, there was approximately a 7-week preconceptional instillation) No impact to birth weight, however exposure significantly decreased offspring body weight from postnatal week 2 until the end of observation; decreased food intake but no alteration in brown adipose tissue
Chen et al. [87] C57BL/6J mice Concentrated ambient particles, PM2.5 88.66 μg/m3 Inhalation Preconception, pregnancy, and lactation (6 h/day, 5 days/week; no exposure took place during weekends or the day of birth) Significantly decreased offspring birth weight, but increased body weight of adult male; adult males had increased food intake, but were sensitive to exogenous leptin
Wu et al. [69] Sprague Dawley rats Ultrafine PM, ammonium sulfate 100 to 200 μg/m3 Inhalation Throughout gestation (until GD0-18) Impacts to prenatal and postnatal organogenesis in offspring; increased stillbirths; reduced gestation length and birth weight; increased concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids in plasma; enhanced lipid accumulation in the liver; decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation of aorta
  1. BW birth weight, AGD anogenital distance, GD gestation day