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Table 2 Relationship between annual mean temperature (°C) and seasonality estimates*, expressed as the percent changes in temperature-unadjusted peak-to-trough ratio (95% confidence interval) for 1 °C increase in annual mean temperature

From: Seasonality of mortality under a changing climate: a time-series analysis of mortality in Japan between 1972 and 2015

Models All-cause mortality Circulatory mortality Respiratory mortality
Unadjusted for confounders − 1.62
(− 2.10 to − 1.19)
− 2.07
(− 2.70 to − 1.53)
− 2.25
(− 3.49 to − 1.00)
Adjusting for confounders§ − 0.98
(− 1.42 to − 0.54)
− 1.39
(− 1.97 to − 0.82)
− 0.13
(− 1.4 to 1.24)
  1. §Confounders include relative humidity, proportion of population aged ≥ 65 years, consumer price index, and prevalence of air conditioning
  2. *Meta-regression models were used to investigate the relationships between annual mean temperature and seasonality estimates. Temperature-unadjusted seasonality estimates for each year in each prefecture (with natural logarithm transformation of temperature-unadjusted PTR) were the outcome. The percent changes in temperature-unadjusted PTR were calculated as 100(exp(β)-1), where β is the regression coefficient for log (PTR) on annual temperature (°C)