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Table 4 Association between use of each type of dietary supplement and demographic, social, and health-related behavioral characteristics

From: Dietary supplement use in elementary school children: a Japanese web-based survey

  Amino acids or protein n3-fatty acids Botanicals Probiotics Multivitamins-minerals supplements Multivitamins supplements
n OR (95%CI) n OR (95%CI) n OR (95%CI) n OR (95%CI) n OR (95%CI) n OR (95%CI)
Grade
 1 5 1.00 (reference) 11 1.00 (reference) 3 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference) 4 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference)
 2 10 2.14 (0.72, 6.33) 3 0.28 (0.08, 1.01) 3 1.00 (0.20, 5.02) 7 1.24 (1.24, 0.41) 5 1.30 (0.34, 4.90) 5 0.87 (0.26, 2.89)
 3 12 1.87 (0.65, 5.44) 10 0.66 (0.26, 1.66) 7 1.76 (0.43, 7.16) 8 1.14 (1.14, 0.37) 6 0.87 (0.23, 3.28) 6 0.84 (0.26, 2.76)
 4 12 1.79 (0.62, 5.16) 9 0.60 (0.24, 1.46) 8 2.15 (0.56, 8.22) 7 0.87 (0.87, 0.29) 4 0.80 (0.20, 3.24) 9 1.11 (0.39, 3.16)
 5 14 1.78 (0.63, 5.02) 11 0.64 (0.27, 1.50) 9 2.00 (0.53, 7.52) 9 0.95 (0.95, 0.33) 7 1.31 (0.38, 4.56) 9 0.87 (0.30, 2.56)
 6 15 1.83 (0.65, 5.11) 10 0.53 (0.22, 1.28) 8 1.75 (0.46, 6.73) 10 1.02 (1.02, 0.36) 15 2.53 (0.83, 7.77) 7 0.69 (0.23, 2.09)
Sex
 Male 50 2.40 (1.38, 4.18) 28 0.97 (0.56, 1.69) 21 1.17 (0.60, 2.25) 26 1.03 (0.57, 1.86) 20 0.93 (0.50, 1.75) 23 1.03 (0.55, 1.95)
 Female 18 1.00 (reference) 26 1.00 (reference) 17 1.00 (reference) 21 1.00 (reference) 21 1.00 (reference) 19 1.00 (reference)
BMI categorya
 Underweight 8 0.77 (0.36, 1.65) 7 0.88 (0.39, 2.02) 3 0.53 (0.16, 1.75) 6 0.81 (0.34, 1.96) 8 1.86 (0.80, 4.31) 3 0.42 (0.13, 1.38)
 Normal-weight 48 1.00 (reference) 33 1.00 (reference) 26 1.00 (reference) 33 1.00 (reference) 19 1.00 (reference) 32 1.00 (reference)
 Overweight 12 0.87 (0.45, 1.69) 14 1.23 (0.61, 2.45) 9 1.00 (0.44, 2.28) 8 0.72 (0.31, 1.67) 14 2.47 (1.17, 5.21) 7 0.71 (0.29, 1.71)
Frequency of sports participation
 Never 4 1.00 (reference) 10 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference) 10 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference)
 Once a week 11 3.64 (1.15, 11.6) 12 1.66 (0.71, 3.90) 14 3.29 (1.24, 8.69) 10 2.12 (0.76, 5.92) 4 0.58 (0.18, 1.86) 5 1.10 (0.33, 3.65)
 2–3 times/week 33 4.99 (1.75, 14.2) 19 1.29 (0.59, 2.82) 16 1.79 (0.69, 4.65) 23 2.44 (0.98, 6.08) 19 1.32 (0.61, 2.89) 17 1.86 (0.72, 4.79)
 4–6 times/week 12 5.37 (1.70, 17.0) 7 1.52 (0.56, 4.09) 1 0.33 (0.04, 2.78) 6 2.16 (0.68, 6.86) 5 1.12 (0.37, 3.36) 8 2.42 (0.79, 7.43)
 Every day 8 6.06 (1.78, 20.6) 6 2.29 (0.80, 6.51) 1 0.54 (0.06, 4.55) 2 1.23 (0.24, 6.26) 3 1.02 (0.27, 3.83) 6 3.56 (1.11, 11.5)
Health status
 Poor or fair 19 1.00 (reference) 3 1.00 (reference) 3 1.00 (reference) 2 1.00 (reference) 5 1.00 (reference) 1 1.00 (reference)
 Good 19 1.71 (0.94, 3.08) 19 0.92 (0.27, 3.16) 15 2.38 (0.65, 8.70) 21 2.11 (0.46, 9.67) 11 1.43 (0.64, 3.16) 15 1.49 (0.67, 3.31)
 Very good 24 1.58 (0.84, 2.96) 17 0.75 (0.21, 2.61) 8 1.87 (0.86, 4.05) 12 3.12 (1.51, 6.44) 12 1.43 (0.63, 3.24) 12 2.29 (1.06, 4.91)
 Excellent 22 1.89 (0.55, 6.50) 15 0.42 (0.12, 1.48) 12 0.98 (0.40, 2.42) 12 1.49 (0.67, 3.36) 13 3.89 (1.33, 11.4) 14 1.13 (0.14, 8.90)
Household income (10000 Japanese yen/year)
  < 200 6 1.00 (reference) 3 1.00 (reference) 6 1.00 (reference) 4 1.00 (reference) 3 1.00 (reference) 5 1.00 (reference)
 200 to < 400 7 0.68 (0.22, 2.03) 3 0.46 (0.11, 2.79) 3 0.28 (0.07, 1.14) 2 0.28 (0.05, 1.53) 8 1.56 (0.41, 5.95) 2 0.21 (0.04, 1.09)
 400 to < 600 14 0.74 (0.28, 1.94) 18 1.19 (0.55, 6.50) 7 0.36 (0.12, 1.08) 10 0.73 (0.23, 2.36) 9 0.87 (0.23, 3.27) 11 0.66 (0.22, 1.93)
 600 to < 800 21 1.33 (0.52, 3.40) 16 1.39 (0.62, 7.62) 13 0.86 (0.31, 2.34) 19 1.75 (0.58, 5.29) 8 0.96 (0.25, 3.73) 11 0.75 (0.25, 2.24)
 800 to < 1000 7 0.77 (0.25, 2.37) 4 0.78 (0.22, 4.60) 2 0.25 (0.05, 1.26) 4 0.67 (0.16, 2.76) 6 1.25 (0.30, 5.20) 3 0.34 (0.08, 1.49)
  ≥ 1000 13 1.91 (0.69, 5.29) 10 2.19 (0.85, 12.2) 7 1.05 (0.33, 3.34) 8 1.73 (0.50, 5.98) 7 1.79 (0.44, 7.30) 10 1.24 (0.39, 3.98)
Maternal educational level (years)
  ≤ 12 15 1.00 (reference) 8 1.00 (reference) 7 1.00 (reference) 5 1.00 (reference) 5 1.00 (reference) 8 1.00 (reference)
 13 to 15 21 0.97 (0.49, 1.92) 26 0.93 (1.01, 5.06) 16 1.56 (0.63, 2.85) 22 2.85 (1.06, 7.62) 17 2.71 (0.98, 7.47) 9 0.83 (0.31, 2.18)
  ≥ 16 32 1.35 (0.69, 2.63) 20 0.70 (0.67, 3.76) 15 1.47 (0.56, 2.36) 20 2.36 (0.85, 6.54) 19 3.39 (1.20, 9.58) 25 2.21 (0.93, 5.25)
  1. Multivariate logistic regression was adjusted for all other variables examined
  2. Use of dietary supplements was defined as children who used dietary supplements, regardless of frequency
  3. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR `odds ratio
  4. aBMI was categorized as underweight, normal-weight, or overweight based on age- and sex-specific cut-off points defined by the International Obesity Task Force [28, 29]