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Table 3 Association between dietary supplement use and demographic, social, and health-related behavioral characteristics

From: Dietary supplement use in elementary school children: a Japanese web-based survey

  Any use of dietary supplementsa Everyday use of dietary supplementsb
nc OR (95%CI) nc OR (95%CI)
Grade
 1 38 1.00 (reference) 16 1.00 (reference)
 2 32 0.88 (0.54, 1.43) 13 0.86 (0.41, 1.82)
 3 55 1.13 (0.73, 1.77) 15 0.75 (0.36, 1.58)
 4 53 1.04 (0.67, 1.61) 15 0.67 (0.33, 1.38)
 5 72 1.28 (0.85, 1.94) 28 1.16 (0.62, 2.18)
 6 83 1.38 (0.92, 2.07) 30 1.11 (0.59, 2.07)
Sex
 Male 201 1.38 (1.09, 1.75) 73 0.69 (0.47, 1.01)
 Female 132 1.00 (reference) 44 1.00 (reference)
BMI categoryd
 Underweight 38 0.75 (0.52, 1.07) 13 0.69 (0.38, 1.25)
 Normal-weight 225 1.00 (reference) 83 1 (reference)
 Overweight 70 0.99 (0.73, 1.33) 21 0.84 (0.50, 1.40)
Frequency of sports participation
 Never 52 1.00 (reference) 21 1.00 (reference)
 Once a week 49 1.29 (0.86, 1.94) 12 0.75 (0.36, 1.54)
 2–3 times/week 145 1.86 (1.33, 2.58) 47 1.46 (0.86, 2.47)
 4–6 times/week 48 1.85 (1.22, 2.80) 23 2.19 (1.18, 4.05)
 Every day 39 2.58 (1.65, 4.02) 14 2.12 (1.05, 4.29)
Health status
 Poor or fair 20 1.00 (reference) 42 1.00 (reference)
 Good 102 1.29 (0.97, 1.72) 31 1.16 (0.72, 1.87)
 Very good 95 1.61 (1.21, 2.13) 35 1.52 (0.95, 2.41)
 Excellent 116 2.26 (1.35, 3.76) 42 2.88 (1.35, 6.13)
Household income (10000Japanese yen/year)
  < 200 26 1.00 (reference) 9 1.00 (reference)
 200 to < 400 37 0.81 (0.48, 1.36) 9 0.57 (0.23, 1.46)
 400 to < 600 87 1.06 (0.67, 1.67) 34 1.24 (0.59, 2.63)
 600 to < 800 91 1.37 (0.86, 2.17) 30 1.36 (0.63, 2.94)
 800 to < 1000 38 0.99 (0.59, 1.68) 11 0.87 (0.35, 2.15)
  ≥ 1000 54 1.87 (1.13, 3.10) 24 2.56 (1.14, 5.74)
Maternal educational level (years)
  ≤ 12 61 1.00 (reference) 25 1.00 (reference)
 13 to 15 125 1.51 (1.10, 2.09) 40 1.13 (0.68, 1.90)
  ≥ 16 147 1.82 (1.31, 2.52) 52 1.44 (0.86, 2.41)
  1. Multivariate logistic regression was adjusted for all other variables examined
  2. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  3. aAny use of dietary supplements was defined as dietary supplement use, regardless of frequency (n = 333)
  4. bEveryday use of dietary supplements was defined as dietary supplement use every day (n = 117)
  5. cNumber of dietary supplement users
  6. dBMI was categorized as underweight, normal-weight, or overweight based on age- and sex-specific cut-off points defined by the International Obesity Task Force [28, 29]