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Table 2 Multivariable associations of blood cobalt concentrations with insulin resistance in US adults during 2015–2016

From: Sex differences in the link between blood cobalt concentrations and insulin resistance in adults without diabetes

HOMA-IR Model 1 Model 2
Coefficient 95% CI P value Coefficient 95% CI P value
Continues variable Overall − 0.060 − 0.142, 0.023 0.157 − 0.063 − 0.137, 0.011 0.097
Male − 0.032 − 0.165, 0.100 0.631 − 0.082 − 0.199, 0.036 0.173
Female − 0.125 − 0.234, − 0.015 0.026 − 0.095 − 0.203, 0.012 0.082
  1. Model 1: age and gender
  2. Model 2: model 1 plus race, BMI, PIR, alcohol use, and education level
  3. Exposure variables and risk factor variables were log transformed in the models