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Table 1 Blood cobalt concentration (mean ± SD) according to demographics and lifestyle

From: Sex differences in the link between blood cobalt concentrations and insulin resistance in adults without diabetes

  Cobalt (μg/L)  
Participants [n (%)] Mean ± SD P value
Overall 1281 (100%) 0.20 ± 0.51  
Age (years)    < 0.001
 < 60 720 (56.2%) 0.19 ± 0.57  
 ≥ 60 561 (43.8%) 0.21 ± 0.40  
Gender    < 0.001
 Male 602 (47.0%) 0.18 ± 0.38  
 Female 679 (53.0%) 0.22 ± 0.60  
Race    0.696
 Mexican American 180 (14.1%) 0.26 ± 1.10  
 Other Hispanic 180 (14.1%) 0.16 ± 0.13  
 Non-Hispanic White 503 (39.3%) 0.20 ± 0.42  
 Non-Hispanic Black 261 (20.4%) 0.17 ± 0.13  
 Other race–including multiracial 157 (12.3%) 0.20 ± 0.27  
BMI (kg/m2)    0.061
 < 25 345 (26.9%) 0.18 ± 0.30  
 25–30 436 (34.0%) 0.23 ± 0.73  
 > 30 488 (38.1%) 0.19 ± 0.35  
Alcohol use    0.001
 Yes 800 (62.5%) 0.19 ± 0.34  
 No 385 (30.1%) 0.22 ± 0.77  
PIR    0.248
 < 1 233 (18.2%) 0.23 ± 0.97  
 ≥ 1 910 (71.0%) 0.19 ± 0.32  
Education level    0.228
 Less than 9th grade 156 (12.2%) 0.27 ± 1.17  
 9th–11th grade 146 (11.4%) 0.17 ± 0.25  
 High school graduate/GED or equivalent 285 (22.2%) 0.20 ± 0.44  
 Some college or AA degree 364 (28.4%) 0.19 ± 0.31  
 College graduate or above 330 (25.8%) 0.18 ± 0.20