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Table 6 Associations between conformity and recommendations from others and three preventive behaviors

From: Public perceptions, individual characteristics, and preventive behaviors for COVID-19 in six countries: a cross-sectional study

  China Italy Japan Korea UK US
OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Wearing a mask
 Conformity 2.36 (0.74–10.74) 1.13 (0.45–3.49) 5.18 (1.54–32.35)c 2.62 (0.83–12.08) 0.78 (0.49–1.21) 1.29 (0.83–2.05)
 Recommendations from family/friends 1.33 (0.70–2.70) 0.68 (0.33–1.53) 3.42 (1.19–14.48)c 1.05 (0.42–3.10) 1.41 (0.90–2.19) 1.27 (0.88–1.84)
 Recommendations from doctors/public health officials 2.04 (1.12–3.78)c 2.02 (1.34–3.06)a 2.84 (1.34–7.01)c 1.24 (0.51–3.53) 0.66 (0.48–0.90)b 1.82 (1.33–2.50)a
 Recommendations from politicians 1.00 (0.47–2.31) 1.60 (0.98–2.72) 1.39 (0.67–3.30) 1.09 (0.26–8.33) 0.56 (0.41–0.77)a 1.63 (1.15–2.33)b
Handwashing/using hand sanitizers
 Conformity 0.59 (0.23–1.73) 0.94 (0.17–17.83) 1.22 (0.52–3.39) 1.43 (0.51–5.22) 0.44 (0.18–1.21) 0.70 (0.30–1.78)
 Recommendations from family/friends 0.96 (0.51–1.89) 0.60 (0.15–3.99) 1.52 (0.62–4.61) 1.71 (0.60–6.32) 1.44 (0.39–9.40) 0.90 (0.41–2.15)
 Recommendations from doctors/public health officials 1.70 (0.92–3.20) 2.42 (0.98–6.34) 1.75 (0.85–4.13) 2.85 (0.95–12.42) 0.97 (0.40–2.37) 1.71 (0.81–3.79)
 Recommendations from politicians 1.74 (0.74–4.88) 0.60 (0.24–1.63) 1.21 (0.55–3.05) 1.83 (0.32–36.37) 0.91 (0.38–2.24) 2.68 (0.99–9.42)
Avoiding social gathering
 Conformity 0.78 (0.34–1.93) 0.76 (0.26–2.67) 1.41 (0.54–1.51) 1.11 (0.58–2.27) 0.85 (0.45–1.66) 1.20 (0.70–2.15)
 Recommendations from family/friends 1.17 (0.68–2.05) 0.48 (0.21–1.24) 1.13 (0.46–3.25) 0.73 (0.38–1.46) 0.72 (0.38–1.41) 1.23 (0.76–2.04)
 Recommendations from doctors/public health officials 1.22 (0.75–1.98) 1.54 (0.90–2.64) 1.44 (0.64–3.70) 1.40 (0.77–2.68) 1.05 (0.66–1.68) 2.14 (1.40–3.28)a
 Recommendations from politicians 0.66 (0.36–1.22) 1.16 (0.62–2.28) 1.09 (0.46–2.93) 0.94 (0.33–3.46) 1.70 (1.05–2.79)b 1.44 (0.90–2.34)
  1. Adjusted for gender, age (65 or more), residential area, living arrangement, income levels (five groups), perceived probability, perceived severity, perceived effectiveness, feeling anxiety, and region
  2. COVID-19, coronavirus diesease 2019; OR, odds ratio; 95%CI, 95% confidence intervals
  3. aP-value < 0.001
  4. bP-value < 0.01
  5. cP-value < 0.05