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Table 4 Associations between public perceptions, personal characteristics, and handwashing/using hand sanitizers

From: Public perceptions, individual characteristics, and preventive behaviors for COVID-19 in six countries: a cross-sectional study

  China Italy Japan Korea UK US
OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Age group
 Under 65 years old 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Over 65 years old 1.75 (0.71–5.11) 1.74 (0.56–7.64) 2.47 (1.27–5.21)d 0.55 (0.26–1.28) 3.50 (0.66–64.78) 2.20 (0.70–9.77)
Sex
 Female 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Male 0.56 (0.31–0.98)d 0.55 (0.23–1.23) 0.32 (0.19–0.53)b 0.52 (0.26–1.00) 0.43 (0.16–1.06) 0.47 (0.21–1.01)
Use public transportation
 No 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Yes 0.78 (0.44–1.43) 0.89 (0.30–3.34) 1.62 (0.96–2.82) 1.33 (0.70–2.63) 0.53 (0.22–1.34) 0.51 (0.24–1.10)
Living urban
 No 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Yes 1.29 (0.66–2.43) 1.31 (0.57–2.96) 0.66 (0.40–1.10) 0.51 (0.25–1.00) 0.57 (0.23–1.39) 1.01 (0.48–2.09)
Living alone
 No 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Yes 0.73 (0.41–1.32) 0.52 (0.22–1.36) 0.50 (0.31–0.82)c 1.10 (0.49–2.65) 2.49 (0.91–8.15) 0.86 (0.41–1.90)
Income group
 1st quintile 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 2nd quintile 0.51 (0.21–1.15) 0.52 (0.14–1.81) 1.02 (0.53–1.96) 2.71 (1.00–8.69) 1.00 (0.27–3.61) 2.35 (0.74–8.33)
 3rd quintile 0.96 (0.37–2.45) 0.96 (0.26–3.42) 1.49 (0.75–2.99) 2.25 (0.93–5.86) 1.87 (0.46–8.05) 4.33 (1.17–21.04)d
 4th quintile 0.73 (0.28–1.89) 1.10 (0.29–3.93) 2.57 (1.15–6.11)d 2.00 (0.86–4.86) 4.64 (0.90–35.01) 1.04 (0.38–2.70)
 5th quintile 0.90 (0.33–2.51) 0.88 (0.21–3.90) 1.11 (0.52–2.38) 3.50 (1.27–11.37)d 1.09 (0.31–3.53) 1.63 (0.55–4.88)
Feeling anxiety
 No 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Yes 2.05 (1.15–3.80)d 1.36 (0.59–3.35) 1.74 (1.09–2.83)d 1.16 (0.61–2.22) 0.84 (0.35–2.07) 1.06 (0.52–2.23)
Perceived susceptibilitya 0.81 (0.71–0.91)b 0.99 (0.84–1.18) 0.98 (0.90–1.09) 0.77 (0.66–0.90)b 1.05 (0.89–1.27) 0.91 (0.80–1.03)
Perceived severitya 1.02 (0.93–1.13) 1.05 (0.90–1.25) 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 1.12 (0.98–1.30) 1.01 (0.85–1.21) 0.92 (0.81–1.06)
Perceived effectiveness
 Not effective at all 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Slightly effective 0.40 (0.02–2.92) 1.85 (0.41–7.86) 3.00 (0.97–9.33) 4.55 (0.65–35.65) 1.01 (0.18–4.64) 1.45 (0.28–6.80)
 Moderately effective 0.38 (0.02–2.08) 6.84 (1.51–28.73)c 4.53 (1.53–13.43)c 2.10 (0.40–10.27) 3.37 (0.62–15.17) 4.26 (0.82–20.61)
 Very effective 0.79 (0.04–4.26) 16.15 (3.52–68.93)b 7.75 (2.60–23.09)b 8.28 (1.57–41.10)c 3.35 (0.64–13.93) 6.35 (1.32–26.81)d
 Extremely effective 3.68 (0.18–25.36) 16.39 (3.56–70.18)b 12.24 (4.03–37.35)b 12.41 (2.02–76.39)c 18.04 (2.60–152.78)c 10.56 (2.21–44.32)c
  1. COVID-19, coronavirus diesease 2019; OR, odds ratio; 95%CI, 95% confidence intervals
  2. aThe odds ratios indicate indicate a propability of handwashing with a 10% increase in each perception (%)
  3. bP-value < 0.001
  4. cP-value < 0.01
  5. dP-value < 0.05