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Table 2 Public perception and personal characteristics of participants by six countries

From: Public perceptions, individual characteristics, and preventive behaviors for COVID-19 in six countries: a cross-sectional study

  China (n = 994) Italy (n = 1020) Japan (n = 981) Korea (n = 918) UK (n = 994) US (n = 1038)
Over 65 years old (n) 117 (11.8%) 180 (17.6%) 196 (20.0%) 133 (14.5%) 157 (15.8%) 239 (23.0%)
Male (n) 487 (49.0%) 522 (51.2%) 474 (48.3%) 474 (51.6%) 489 (49.2%) 454 (43.7%)
Living urban (n) 723 (72.7%) 607 (59.5%) 271 (27.6%) 554 (60.3%) 339 (34.1%) 428 (41.2%)
Living alone (n) 418 (42.1%) 168 (16.5%) 218 (22.2%) 155 (16.9%) 233 (23.4%) 253 (24.4%)
Income group (n)
 First quintile 201 (20.2%) 170 (16.7%) 206 (21.0%) 198 (21.6%) 180 (18.1%) 181 (17.4%)
 Second quintile 199 (20.0%) 179 (17.5%) 209 (21.3%) 163 (17.8%) 179 (18.0%) 195 (18.8%)
 Third quintile 198 (19.9%) 244 (23.9%) 214 (21.8%) 199 (21.7%) 196 (19.7%) 218 (21.0%)
 Fourth quintile 198 (19.9%) 262 (25.7%) 187 (19.1%) 200 (21.8%) 222 (22.3%) 245 (23.6%)
 Fifth quintile 198 (19.9%) 165 (16.2%) 165 (16.8%) 158 (17.2%) 217 (21.8%) 199 (19.2%)
Feeling anxiety (n) 450 (45.3%) 468 (45.9%) 472 (48.1%) 437 (47.6%) 431 (43.4%) 447 (43.1%)
Use public transportation (n) 269 (27.1%) 96 (9.4%) 264 (26.9%) 332 (36.2%) 179 (18.0%) 147 (14.2%)
Perceived susceptibility (%)a 10.0 (16.6) 14.0 (22.7) 19.8 (22.6) 10.7 (17.5) 22.4 (26.2) 21.7 (28.4)
Perceived severity (%)a 35.3 (30.8) 31.3 (26.3) 27.8 (23.3) 28.5 (28.0) 31.9 (25.2) 40.3 (29.6)
Perceived effectiveness for wearing a mask (n)
 Not effective at all 22 (2.2%) 61 (6.0%) 69 (7.0%) 14 (1.5%) 197 (19.8%) 58 (5.6%)
 Slightly effective 31 (3.1%) 54 (5.3%) 148 (15.1%) 28 (3.1%) 207 (20.8%) 107 (10.3%)
 Moderately effective 105 (10.6%) 150 (14.7%) 248 (25.3%) 127 (13.8%) 272 (27.4%) 204 (19.7%)
 Very effective 263 (26.5%) 272 (26.7%) 213 (21.7%) 394 (42.9%) 164 (16.5%) 285 (27.5%)
 Extremely effective 573 (57.6%) 483 (47.4%) 303 (30.9%) 355 (38.7%) 154 (15.5%) 384 (37.0%)
Perceived effectiveness for washing hands (n)
 Not effective at all 19 (1.9%) 18 (1.8%) 19 (1.9%) 9 (1.0%) 21 (2.1%) 15 (1.4%)
 Slightly effective 32 (3.2%) 46 (4.5%) 92 (9.4%) 30 (3.3%) 60 (6.0%) 47 (4.5%)
 Moderately effective 151 (15.2%) 153 (15.0%) 178 (18.1%) 141 (15.4%) 202 (20.3%) 117 (11.3%)
 Very effective 444 (44.7%) 379 (37.2%) 316 (32.2%) 479 (52.2%) 322 (32.4%) 295 (28.4%)
 Extremely effective 348 (35.0%) 424 (41.6%) 376 (38.3%) 259 (28.2%) 389 (39.1%) 564 (54.3%)
Perceived effectiveness for avoiding social gathering (n)
 Not effective at all 34 (3.4%) 31 (3.0%) 59 (6.0%) 19 (2.1%) 34 (3.4%) 37 (3.6%)
 Slightly effective 32 (3.2%) 38 (3.7%) 69 (7.0%) 35 (3.8%) 38 (3.8%) 64 (6.2%)
 Moderately effective 133 (13.4%) 71 (7.0%) 163 (16.6%) 90 (9.8%) 125 (12.6%) 118 (11.4%)
 Very effective 265 (26.7%) 233 (22.8%) 209 (21.3%) 339 (36.9%) 256 (25.8%) 250 (24.1%)
 Extremely effective 530 (53.3%) 647 (63.4%) 481 (49.0%) 435 (47.4%) 541 (54.4%) 569 (54.8%)
Wearing a mask (n)
 Never 24 (2.4%) 75 (7.4%) 59 (6.0%) 27 (2.9%) 661 (66.5%) 206 (19.8%)
 Rarely 48 (4.8%) 55 (5.4%) 63 (6.4%) 26 (2.8%) 59 (5.9%) 71 (6.8%)
 Sometimes 68 (6.8%) 66 (6.5%) 98 (10.0%) 41 (4.5%) 90 (9.1%) 143 (13.8%)
 Very often 209 (21.0%) 164 (16.1%) 184 (18.8%) 155 (16.9%) 76 (7.6%) 212 (20.4%)
 Always 645 (64.9%) 660 (64.7%) 577 (58.8%) 669 (72.9%) 108 (10.9%) 406 (39.1%)
Handwashing/using hand sanitizers (n)
 Never 8 (0.8%) 13 (1.3%) 47 (4.8%) 28 (3.1%) 7 (0.7%) 16 (1.5%)
 Rarely 56 (5.6%) 15 (1.5%) 52 (5.3%) 23 (2.5%) 19 (1.9%) 26 (2.5%)
 Sometimes 60 (6.0%) 38 (3.7%) 75 (7.6%) 48 (5.2%) 75 (7.5%) 65 (6.3%)
 Very often 320 (32.2%) 285 (27.9%) 199 (20.3%) 279 (30.4%) 303 (30.5%) 228 (22.0%)
 Always 550 (55.3%) 669 (65.6%) 608 (62.0%) 540 (58.8%) 590 (59.4%) 703 (67.7%)
Avoiding social gathering (n)
 Never 695 (69.9%) 864 (84.7%) 806 (82.2%) 664 (72.3%) 742 (74.6%) 698 (67.2%)
 Rarely 167 (16.8%) 58 (5.7%) 102 (10.4%) 116 (12.6%) 112 (11.3%) 148 (14.3%)
 Sometimes 73 (7.3%) 42 (4.1%) 42 (4.3%) 47 (5.1%) 73 (7.3%) 87 (8.4%)
 Very often 41 (4.1%) 27 (2.6%) 13 (1.3%) 37 (4.0%) 34 (3.4%) 65 (6.3%)
 Always 18 (1.8%) 29 (2.8%) 18 (1.8%) 54 (5.9%) 33 (3.3%) 40 (3.9%)
  1. aValues are expressed as mean and standard deviation