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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, total K6 scores, and negative life events according to period on The Japan Environment and Children Study

From: The prevalence of psychological distress during pregnancy in Miyagi Prefecture for 3 years after the Great Eas t Japan Earthquake

  2011H1 2011H2 2012H1 2012H2 2013H1 2013H2 p value
n 9513 12,004 13,569 13,405 14,659 13,002  
Age        0.0009
 ≤ 24 years 9.86 9.83 9.46 9.40 9.35 9.32  
 25–34 years 63.99 63.84 62.69 62.79 62.25 61.87  
 ≥ 35 years 26.14 26.33 27.86 27.80 28.39 28.80  
 Missing 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01  
Parity        < 0.001
 Primipara 37.60 37.70 38.29 38.65 38.90 41.16  
 Multipara 58.54 59.24 58.35 58.85 58.01 57.59  
 Missing 3.86 3.07 3.36 2.50 2.09 1.25  
Marital status        0.0027
 Married 95.42 95.51 95.46 95.27 95.23 94.59  
 Other 4.14 4.03 4.17 4.20 4.25 5.03  
 Missing 0.44 0.46 0.37 0.53 0.52 0.38  
Family income        < 0.001
 ≤ 199 × 104 JPY 5.78 5.49 5.65 5.36 5.33 5.08  
 200–399 × 104 JPY 32.75 32.63 32.83 32.50 31.48 30.77  
 400–599 × 104 JPY 31.22 31.22 29.91 31.00 31.55 31.56  
 ≥ 600 × 104 JPY 24.02 24.34 24.70 24.29 25.16 27.07  
 Missing 6.21 6.31 6.91 6.84 6.48 5.51  
Education level        
 Maternal        <0.0001
  Junior high school 7.72 7.49 7.57 7.18 7.39 7.31  
  Senior high school 37.05 36.06 35.03 35.39 34.55 33.89  
  College 54.34 55.66 56.39 56.39 57.04 57.63  
  Missing 0.89 0.78 1.02 1.04 1.02 1.16  
 Paternal        < 0.0001
  Junior high school 4.95 4.81 5.07 5.07 4.71 4.86  
  Senior high school 30.84 31.87 30.21 30.76 29.75 28.75  
  College 63.79 63.05 64.29 63.77 65.12 66.02  
  Missing 0.42 0.27 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.37  
Body mass index        < 0.0001
 < 18.5 kg/m2 16.11 15.80 15.90 17.00 15.64 16.91  
 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 72.12 72.80 73.21 71.58 72.67 72.16  
 ≥ 25 kg/m2 9.77 9.70 9.64 10.26 10.86 10.16  
 Missing 2.00 1.70 1.25 1.16 0.83 0.77  
  2011H1 2011H2 2012H1 2012H2 2013H1 2013H2 p value
n 9513 12,004 13,569 13,405 14,659 13,002  
Smoking        
 Maternal        0.0005
  Yes 5.25 4.61 4.89 4.74 4.65 4.15  
  No 94.06 94.52 94.23 94.26 94.55 95.23  
  Missing 0.69 0.87 0.88 1.00 0.80 0.62  
 Paternal        0.3362
  Yes 45.62 45.48 45.56 44.96 44.72 45.06  
  No 52.63 52.80 52.63 53.18 53.70 53.42  
  Missing 1.74 1.72 1.81 1.86 1.58 1.52  
Alcohol intake        < 0.0001
 Yes 3.90 3.47 3.21 2.73 2.46 2.35  
 No 95.58 95.96 96.15 96.14 96.35 96.77  
 Missing 0.52 0.57 0.65 1.13 1.19 0.88  
Feeling toward this pregnancy        0.9068
 Uneasy 7.98 7.47 7.66 7.50 7.74 7.40  
 Other 91.73 92.19 92.02 92.14 91.95 92.31  
 Missing 0.29 0.33 0.32 0.36 0.31 0.29  
Past history of mental illness        0.452
 Yes 7.25 7.71 7.82 7.73 7.68 8.01  
 No 92.75 92.29 92.18 92.27 92.32 91.99  
Fetal number        < 0.0001
 Singleton 99.21 99.83 99.31 96.49 91.69 86.42  
 Multiple 0.79 0.17 0.69 3.51 8.30 13.58  
Number of times participating in JECS        < 0.0001
 1 99.99 99.83 99.32 96.51 91.74 86.42  
 2 0.01 0.17 0.68 3.49 8.23 13.42  
 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.16  
Total scoring of K6 points        0.0598
 ≤ 4 78.10 78.87 77.57 77.64 76.92 77.40  
 5–9 15.00 14.57 15.59 15.22 15.70 15.62  
 10–12 3.63 3.49 3.32 3.51 3.78 3.37  
 ≥ 13 3.27 3.07 3.52 3.63 3.60 3.62  
  2011H1 2011H2 2012H1 2012H2 2013H1 2013H2 p value
n 9513 12,004 13,569 13,405 14,659 13,002  
Negative life events*1        < 0.001
 Yes 43.95 45.28 42.26 42.83 41.88 41.92  
 No 55.30 54.01 56.86 56.54 57.42 57.50  
 Missing 0.75 0.71 0.88 0.63 0.70 0.58  
Classification of negative life events        
 Bereavement        
  Close blood relative 2.57 2.54 2.39 2.15 2.32 2.31 0.562
  Close friend 1.59 1.51 1.02 1.04 0.91 0.80 < 0.001
 Injury and illness        
  Close blood relative 15.23 16.18 15.17 14.37 14.71 14.39 0.2155
  Dismissal        
  Self 1.43 1.27 1.16 1.10 1.03 0.96 0.0305
  Husband 1.40 1.08 1.12 1.10 0.84 0.86 0.0003
 Enormous debt 0.95 0.92 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.88 0.8872
  Change of family structure 4.65 4.61 4.28 4.00 3.70 3.63 < 0.001
  Change of residence 9.60 9.81 10.04 9.91 10.68 10.48 0.0390
  Marital problems 9.93 10.25 9.77 10.50 9.69 10.16 0.2208
  Divorce 0.30 0.27 0.45 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.0762
  1. 2011H1 from May 2011 to October 2011, 2011H2 from November 2011 to April 2012, 2012H1 from May 2012 to October 2012, 2012H2 from November 2012 to April 2013, 2013H1 from May 2013 to October 2013, 2013H2 from November 2013 to April 2014
  2. Miyagi RC (Regional Center) was combined with inland and coast
  3. 13 RCs the 13 regional centers other than Miyagi RC and Fukushima RC
  4. *1 Negative life events in this survey refer to events within the past year at the time the survey was conducted