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Table 4 Logistic regression to identify factors associated with any tobacco and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use among men, India 2015–2016a

From: Prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use among men in India: findings from a nationally representative data

Factors Any tobacco Both smoke and smokeless tobacco
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Demographic factors         
 Age of the respondents         
  15–24 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  25–34 2.62 (2.48–2.77) < 0.001 1.65 (1.53–1.78) < 0.001 2.04 (1.88–2.21) < 0.001 1.35 (1.21–1.50) < 0.001
  35–44 3.40 (3.22–3.59) < 0.001 1.90 (1.74–2.08) < 0.001 2.22 (2.04–2.43) < 0.001 1.34 (1.18–1.52) < 0.001
  45–54 3.63 (3.43–3.83) < 0.001 2.14 (1.96–2.35) < 0.001 2.25 (2.05–2.47) < 0.001 1.44 (1.26–1.64) < 0.001
 Marital status         
  Single 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Married 3.14 (3.01–3.28) < 0.001 1.36 (1.26–1.46) < 0.001 2.12 (1.96–2.30) < 0.001 1.06 (0.945–1.20) 0.3118
  Separated/divorced/widowed 6.02 (5.04–7.19) < 0.001 2.13 (1.68–2.70) < 0.001 3.94 (3.20–4.84) < 0.001 1.56 (1.22–1.98) < 0.001
Sociocultural factors         
 Education         
  No education 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Primary 0.853 (0.792–0.918) < 0.001 0.991 (0.915–1.07) 0.830 0.824 (0.754–0.899) < 0.001 0.919 (0.830–1.02) 0.104
  Secondary 0.335 (0.315–0.356) < 0.001 0.673 (0.620–0.731) < 0.001 0.424 (0.391–0.460) < 0.001 0.737 (0.659–0.824) < 0.001
  Higher 0.159 (0.146–0.173) < 0.001 0.444 (0.398–0.496) < 0.001 0.176 (0.153–0.202) < 0.001 0.450 (0.375–0.540) < 0.001
 Occupation         
  Not working 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Professional/technical/managerial/services 2.41 (2.25–2.57) <0.001 1.54 (1.42–1.67) < 0.001 1.96 (1.75–2.19) < 0.001 1.46 (1.28–1.66) < 0.001
  Agriculture 4.62 (4.35–4.91) < 0.001 1.81 (1.67–1.95) < 0.001 3.20 (2.87–3.57) < 0.001 1.47 (1.30–1.66) < 0.001
  Skilled/unskilled manual 4.95 (4.63–5.29) < 0.001 2.21 (2.04–2.40) < 0.001 3.57 (3.20–3.98) < 0.001 1.67 (1.47–1.90) < 0.001
 Ethnicity         
 Caste 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Tribe 1.67 (1.54–1.80) < 0.001 1.01 (0.930–1.11) 0.741 1.43 (1.29–1.58) < 0.001 0.726 (0.648–0.814) < 0.001
 No caste/tribe 1.06 (0.946–1.19) 0.313 1.15 (0.989–1.34) 0.068 0.741 (0.606–0.906) 0.003 0.781 (0.636–0.958) 0.0180
 Alcohol consuming         
  No 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Yes 4.54 (4.30–4.80) <0.001 5.22(4.88-5.59) < 0.001 4.84 (4.53–5.18) < 0.001 4.90 (4.55–5.28) < 0.001
 Religion         
  Hindu 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Muslim 1.02 (0.944–1.11) 0.57 1.28 (1.17–1.40) 0.081 0.948 (0.859–1.05) 0.296 1.37 (1.23–1.52) < 0.001
  Others 0.603 (0.554–0.657) < 0.001 0.529 (0.473–0.592) 0.265 0.687 (0.594–0.794) < 0.001 0.763 (0.651–0.895) < 0.001
 Household’s wealth index         
  Poorest 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Poorer 0.709 (0.667–0.753) < 0.001 0.963 (0.896–1.03) 0.302 0.659 (0.609–0.713) < 0.001 0.917 (0.839–1.00) 0.053
  Middle 0.487 (0.459–0.517) < 0.001 0.789 (0.733–0.849) < 0.001 0.445 (0.409–0.485) < 0.001 0.818 (0.735–0.909) < 0.001
  Richer 0.368 (0.344–0.393) < 0.001 0.664 (0.607–0.727) < 0.001 0.322 (0.291–0.356) < 0.001 0.681 (0.598–0.775) < 0.001
  Richest 0.239 (0.221–0.259) < 0.001 0.482 (0.435–0.534) < 0.001 0.207 (0.180–0.239) < 0.001 0.512 (0.428–0.613) < 0.001
Spatial factors         
 Place of residence         
  Rural 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Urban 0.680 (0.645–0.719) < 0.001 1.10 (1.03–1.17) 0.003 0.667 (0.613–0.730) < 0.001 1.13 (1.02–1.23) 0.016
 Region         
  South 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  West 1.72 (1.57–1.88) < 0.001 3.23 (2.91–3.58) < 0.001 1.71 (1.40–2.09) < 0.001 2.82 (2.33–3.43) < 0.001
  North-East 4.26 (3.84–4.72) < 0.001 5.22 (4.57–5.98) < 0.001 8.02 (6.90–9.34) < 0.001 8.50 (7.17–10.1) < 0.001
  East 2.75 (2.53–2.99) < 0.001 3.26 (2.95–3.60) < 0.001 4.14 (3.58–4.78) < 0.001 4.11 (3.52–4.80) < 0.001
  Central 2.83 (2.65–3.04) < 0.001 4.23 (3.89–4.59) < 0.001 5.15 (4.51–5.88) < 0.001 6.11 (5.33–7.00) < 0.001
  North 1.36 (1.26–1.46) < 0.001 2.35 (2.15–2.57) < 0.001 1.80 (1.55–2.11) < 0.001 2.72 (2.32–3.19) < 0.001
Access to information         
 Reading newspaper or magazine         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 0.604 (0.566–0.645) < 0.001 0.913 (0.841–0.990) 0.0274 0.701 (0.634–0.776) < 0.001 0.978 (0.868–1.10) 0.711
  At least once a week 0.468 (0.443–0.494) < 0.001 0.884 (0.823–0.949) < 0.001 0.554 (0.513–0.598) < 0.001 0.975 (0.884–1.08) 0.614
  Almost every day 0.323 (0.305–0.342) < 0.001 0.811 (0.750–0.876) < 0.001 0.346 (0.317–0.377) < 0.001 0.903 (0.800–1.02) 0.103
 Frequency of watching television         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 0.929 (0.865–0.997) 0.042 1.11 (1.02–1.20) 0.014 1.05 (0.956–1.16) 0.291 1.23 (1.10–1.37) 0.132
  At least once a week 0.731 (0.684–0.781) < 0.001 1.08 (0.995–1.17) 0.065 0.802 (0.734–0.876) < 0.001 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 0.527
  Almost every day 0.454 (0.429–0.481) < 0.001 1.06 (0.983–1.14) 0.129 0.447 (0.410–0.487) < 0.001 1.22 (1.05–1.42) 0.325
 Frequency of listening radio         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 1.07 (0.999–1.15) 0.054 1.09 (1.00–1.18) 0.043 1.33 (1.20–1.47) < 0.001 1.42 (1.22–1.64) < 0.001
  At least once a week 0.832 (0.779–0.888) < 0.001 0.955 (0.878–1.04) 0.279 0.980 (0.884–1.09) 0.699 1.28 (1.11–1.47) 0.009
  Almost every day 0.678 (0.624–0.737) < 0.001 0.946 (0.862–1.04) 0.240 0.791 (0.687–0.910) 0.001 1.30 (1.07–1.59) 0.010
  1. aData are from the fourth Indian National Family Health Survey. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CIs in parentheses are shown. P value was displayed in a separate column. All data are weighted to account for survey design