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Table 3 Logistic regression to identify factors associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men, India 2015–2016a

From: Prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use among men in India: findings from a nationally representative data

Factors Smoking Smokeless
  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Demographic factors         
 Age of the respondents         
  15–24 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  25–34 2.27 (2.11–2.43) < 0.001 1.50 (1.36–1.65) < 0.001 2.15 (2.04–2.26) < 0.001 1.43 (1.33–1.55) < 0.001
  35–44 3.02 (2.82–3.23) < 0.001 1.87 (1.69–2.06) < 0.001 2.29 (2.16–2.43) < 0.001 1.34 (1.23–1.47) < 0.001
  45–54 3.79 (3.55–4.05) < 0.001 2.46 (2.21–2.74) < 0.001 1.96 (1.85–2.08) < 0.001 1.19 (1.08–1.30) < 0.001
 Marital status         
  Single 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Married 2.51 (2.37–2.66) < 0.001 1.03 (0.939–1.14) 0.496 2.39 (2.28–2.50) < 0.001 1.44 (1.33–1.56) < 0.001
  Separated/divorced/widowed 4.59 (3.87–5.43) < 0.001 1.70 (1.38–2.10) < 0.001 3.39 (2.86–4.01) < 0.001 1.60 (1.25–2.05) < 0.001
Sociocultural factors         
 Education         
  No education 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Primary 0.822 (0.766–0.882) < 0.001 0.929 (0.856–1.01) 0.078 0.941 (0.877-1.01) 0.09 1.03 (0.945–1.12) 0.527
  Secondary 0.397 (0.374–0.421) < 0.001 0.650 (0.597–0.708) < 0.001 0.506 (0.476-0.538) < 0.001 0.880 (0.806–0.960) 0.004
  Higher 0.260 (0.235–0.287) < 0.001 0.512 (0.453–0.579) < 0.001 0.207 (0.190-0.225) < 0.001 0.530 (0.470–0.599) < 0.001
 Occupation         
  Not working 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Professional/technical/managerial/services 2.29 (2.10–2.49) < 0.001 1.38 (1.25-1.52) < 0.001 1.96 (1.83–2.11) <0.001 1.62 (1.49-1.76) < 0.001
  Agriculture 3.12 (2.89–3.37) < 0.001 1.52 (1.39-1.68) < 0.001 3.79 (3.55–4.04) < 0.001 1.77 (1.63–1.91) < 0.001
  Skilled/unskilled manual 3.28 (3.02–3.57) < 0.001 1.55 (1.40–1.72) < 0.001 4.07 (3.80–4.37) < 0.001 2.25 (2.07–2.45) < 0.001
 Ethnicity         
  Caste 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Tribe 1.14 (1.06–1.24) < 0.001 0.830 (0.758–0.910) < 0.001 1.75 (1.60–1.90) < 0.001 0.977 (0.893–1.07) 0.605
  No caste/tribe 1.52 (1.33–1.73) < 0.001 1.42 (1.23–1.64) < 0.001 0.611 (0.526–0.711) < 0.001 0.682 (0.561–0.829) < 0.001
 Alcohol consuming         
  No 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Yes 4.67 (4.42–4.93) < 0.001 4.33 (4.08–4.60) < 0.001 2.39 (2.28–2.51) < 0.001 2.71 (2.56–2.86) < 0.001
 Religion         
  Hindu 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Muslim 1.18 (1.09–1.29) < 0.001 1.51 (1.38–1.66) < 0.001 0.870 (0.799–0.947) 0.001 1.02 (0.930–1.12) 0.649
  Others 0.786 (0.707–0.874) 0.342 0.666 (0.589–0.754) < 0.001 0.575 (0.519–0.637) < 0.001 0.635 (0.569–0.709) < 0.001
 Household’s wealth index         
  Poorest 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Poorer 0.892 (0.837–0.952) < 0.001 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.021 0.645 (0.608–0.684) < 0.001 0.885 (0.826–0.948) < 0.001
  Middle 0.755 (0.709–0.805) < 0.001 0.999 (0.913–1.09) 0.973 0.425 (0.399–0.453) < 0.001 0.764 (0.708–0.825) < 0.001
  Richer 0.652 (0.605–0.703) < 0.001 0.921 (0.832–1.02) 0.111 0.308 (0.287–0.330) < 0.001 0.631 (0.576–0.692) < 0.001
  Richest 0.499 (0.452–0.550) < 0.001 0.786 (0.690–0.896) < 0.001 0.191 (0.175–0.209) < 0.001 0.437 (0.386–0.495) < 0.001
Spatial factors         
 Place of residence         
  Rural 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Urban 0.869 (0.82–0.93) < 0.001 1.13 (1.05–1.22) < 0.001 0.62 (0.578–0.668) < 0.001 1.04 (0.970–1.18) 0.273
 Region         
  South 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  West 0.453 (0.400–0.513) < 0.001 0.673 (0.591–0.766) < 0.001 5.51 (4.94–6.15) < 0.001 8.40 (7.51–9.40) < 0.001
  North-east 1.92 (1.74–2.12) < 0.001 1.98 (1.76–2.23) < 0.001 8.76 (7.84–9.79) < 0.001 9.38 (8.19–10.7) < 0.001
  East 1.18 (1.07–1.29) < 0.001 1.26 (1.13–1.41) < 0.001 6.31 (5.69–6.98) < 0.001 6.18 (5.50–6.94) < 0.001
  Central 1.09 (1.01–1.17) 0.028 1.38 (1.27–1.50) < 0.001 7.47 (6.84–8.15) < 0.001 8.52 (7.74–9.39) < 0.001
  North 1.12 (1.03–1.21) 0.007 1.73 (1.58–1.90) < 0.001 1.94 (1.76–2.15)) < 0.001 2.62 (2.35–2.92) < 0.001
Access to information         
 Reading newspaper or magazine         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 0.632 (0.589–0.677) < 0.001 0.950 (0.872–1.04) 0.249 0.749 (0.702–0.799) < 0.001 0.945 (0.874–1.02) 0.155
  At least once a week 0.577 (0.543–0.613) < 0.001 0.946 (0.877–1.02) 0.150 0.553 (0.522–0.585) < 0.001 0.924 (0.857–0.997) 0.042
  Almost every day 0.479 (0.447–0.513) < 0.001 0.865 (0.794–0.942) < 0.001 0.346 (0.326–0.368) < 0.001 0.875 (0.804–0.953) 0.002
 Frequency of watching television         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 0.984 (0.912–1.06) 0.666 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 0.032 0.964 (0.895–1.04) 0.33 1.05 (0.962–1.15) 0.272
  At least once a week 0.927 (0.863–0.996) 0.039 1.13 (1.03–1.23) 0.007 0.695 (0.649–0.744) < 0.001 0.982 (0.906–1.06) 0.660
  Almost every day 0.740 (0.695–0.788) < 0.001 1.14 (1.04–1.25) 0.005 0.389 (0.366–0.412) < 0.001 0.924 (0.854–1.00) 0.052
 Frequency of listening radio         
  Not at all 1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
  Less than once a week 1.14 (1.06–1.24) < 0.001 1.16 (1.06–1.26) 0.001 1.08 (1.00–1.17) 0.047 1.06 (0.970–1.16) 0.194
  At least once a week 1.06 (0.979–1.15) 0.15 1.13 (1.03–1.23) 0.009 0.751 (0.695–0.812) < 0.001 0.892 (0.821–0.969) 0.006
  Almost every day 0.966 (0.880–1.06) 0.47 1.12 (1.02–1.24) 0.021 0.576 (0.523–0.633) < 0.001 0.886 (0.796–0.986) 0.026
  1. aData are from the fourth Indian National Family Health Survey. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CIs in parentheses are shown. P value was displayed in a separate column. All data are weighted to account for survey design