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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population and prevalence of smoke and smokeless tobacco use among Indian men by socio-demographic characteristics, India 2015–2016a 

From: Prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use among men in India: findings from a nationally representative data

Factors   Smoking Smokeless
Total N (%)b n (%)b p value % (95% CI) n (%)b p value % (95% CI)
Overall 112,122 (100) 27,563 (100) 24.6 (24.1–25.1) 32,621 (100) 29.1 (28.6–29.6)
Demographic factors
 Age of the respondents    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  15–24 35,364 (31.5) 4570 (16.6) 12.9 (12.3–13.6) 6773 (20.8) 19.2 (18.5–19.8)
  25–34 30,775 (27.5) 7742 (28.1) 25.2 (24.2–26.1) 10,373 (31.8) 33.7 (32.8–34.6)
  35–44 25,821 (23.0) 7989 (29.0) 30.9 (30.0–31.9) 9075 (27.8) 35.1 (34.2–36.1)
  45–54 20,162 (18.0) 7261 (26.3) 36.0 (35.0–37.1) 6401 (19.6) 31.7 (30.8–32.7)
 Marital status    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Single 39,763 (35.5) 5761 (20.9) 14.5 (13.8–15.2) 7272 (22.3) 18.3 (17.6–19.0)
  Married 70,781 (63.1) 21,111 (76.6) 29.8 (29.2–30.5) 24,669 (75.6) 34.9 (34.2–35.5)
  Separated/divorced/widow 1578 (1.4) 690 (2.5) 43.7 (39.7–47.8) 681 (2.1) 43.1 (39.2–47.2)
Sociocultural factors
 Education    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  No education 14,590 (13.0) 5922 (21.5) 40.6 (39.3–41.8) 6305 (19.3) 43.2 (41.9–44.6)
  Primary 14,091 (12.6) 5068 (18.4) 36.0 (34.8–37.2) 5879 (18.0) 41.7 (40.4–43.0)
  Secondary 64,010 (57.1) 13,646 (49.5) 21.3 (20.7–21.9) 17,798 (54.6) 27.8 (27.2–28.4)
  Higher 19,431 (17.3) 2928 (10.6) 15.1 (14.0–16.1) 2639 (8.1) 13.6 (12.8–14.3)
 Occupation    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Not working 24,623 (22.0) 2941 (10.7) 11.9 (11.3–12.7) 3346 (10.3) 13.6 (13.0–14.2)
  Professional/technical/managerial/services 28,191 (25.2) 6675 (24.3) 23.7 (22.7–24.7) 6655 (20.4) 23.6 (22.7–24.6)
  Agriculture 30,202 (27.0) 8981 (32.6) 29.7 (28.9–30.6) 11,278 (34.6) 37.3 (36.5–38.2)
  Skilled/unskilled manual 28 911 (25.8) 8907 (32.4) 30.8 (29.8–31.8) 11,290 (34.7) 39.0 (37.9–40.2)
 Ethnicity    p < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Caste 99,554 (89.6) 23,909 (87.7) 24.0 (23.5–24.6) 28,489 (88.3) 28.6 (28.1–29.2)
  Tribe 7003 (6.3) 1860 (6.8) 26.6 (25.1–28.0) 2,884 (8.9) 41.2 (39.2–43.1)
  No caste/tribe 4595 (4.1) 1490 (5.5) 32.4 (29.6–35.3) 905 (2.8) 19.7 (17.4–22.1)
 Consuming alcohol    p < 0.001   P < 0.001
  No 79036(70.5) 12281 (44.6) 15.5 (15.1–16.0) 18,597 (57.0) 23.5 (23.0–24.1)
  Yes 33086(29.5) 15282 (55.4) 46.2 (45.1–47.2) 14,023 (43.0) 42.4 (41.4–43.4)
 Religion    p < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Hindu 91,390 (81.5) 22,278 (80.8) 24.4 (23.8–24.9) 27,428 (84.1) 30.0 (29.4–30.6)
  Muslim 14,790 (13.2) 4083 (14.8) 27.6 (26.1–29.2) 4018(12.3) 27.2 (25.6–28.8)
  Others 5942(5.3) 1202 (4.4) 20.2 (18.6–21.9) 1175(3.6) 19.8 (18.2–21.4)
 Household’s wealth index    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Poorest 16,441 (14.7) 5104 (18.5) 31.0 (30.0–32.1) 8045 (24.7) 48.9 (47.7–50.1)
  Poorer 20,904 (18.6) 5992 (21.7) 28.7 (27.6–29.7) 7986 (24.5) 38.2 (37.2–39.2)
  Middle 23,687 (21.1) 6011 (21.8) 25.4 (24.5–26.2) 6857 (21.0) 29.0 (28.0–29.9)
  Richer 24,976 (22.3) 5669 (20.6) 22.7 (21.7–23.7) 5692 (17.4) 22.8 (21.9–23.7)
  Richest 26,114 (23.3) 4787 (17.4) 18.3 (17.1–19.6) 4039 (12.4) 15.5 (14.5–16.5)
Spatial factors
 Place of residence    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Rural 69,170 (61.7) 17,688 (64.1) 25.6 (25.0–26.1) 22,674 (69.5) 32.8 (32.2–33.3)
  Urban 42,952 (38.3) 9875 (35.9) 23.0 (22.0–24.0) 9947(30.5) 23.2 (22.1–24.2)
 Region    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  South 26,759 (23.9) 6708 (24.3) 25.1 (23.9–26.3) 2444 (7.5) 9.1 (8.5–9.8)
  West 20,590 (18.3) 2709 (9.8) 13.2 (12.0–14.4) 7340 (22.5) 35.6 (33.9–37.4)
  North-east 3693 (3.3) 1444 (5.2) 39.1 (37.3–40.9) 1729 (5.3) 46.8 (44.9–48.7)
  East 21,051 (18.8) 5943 (21.6) 28.2 (26.9–29.6) 8166 (25.0) 8.8 (37.3–40.3)
  Central 24,117 (21.5) 6434 (23.4) 26.7 (26.0–27.4) 10,341 (31.7) 42.9 (42.0–43.8)
  North 15,912 (14.2) 4324 (15.7) 27.2 (26.3–28.1) 2600 (8.0) 16.3 (15.5–17.2)
Access to information
 Reading newspaper or magazine    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Not at all 35,378 (31.6) 11,591 (42.1) 32.8 (31.9–33.6) 14085 (43.2) 39.8 (38.9–40.7)
  Less than once a week 16,370 (14.6) 3852 (14.0) 23.5 (22.5–24.6) 5424 (16.6) 33.1 (31.9–34.3)
  At least once a week 22,906 (20.4) 5026 (18.2) 21.9 (21.1–22.8) 6132 (18.8) 26.8 (25.9–27.7)
  Almost every day 37,468 (33.4) 7093 (25.7) 18.9 (18.0–19.9) 6980 (21.4) 18.6 (17.9–19.4)
 Frequency of watching television    P < 0.001   P < 0.001
  Not at all 15,112 (13.5) 4289 (15.6) 28.4 (27.4–29.4) 6519 (20.0) 43.1 (41.9–44.3)
  Less than once a week 10,419 (9.3) 2922 (10.6) 28.0 (26.9–29.2) 4400 (13.5) 42.2 (40.8–43.7)
  At least once a week 16,911 (15.1) 4543 (16.5) 26.9 (25.8–27.9) 5836 (17.9) 34.5 (33.3–35.7)
  Almost every day 69,680 (62.1) 15,808 (57.3) 22.7 (22.0–23.3) 15,866 (48.6) 22.8 (22.2–23.4)
 Frequency of listening radio    P = 0.006   P < 0.001
  Not at all 78,919 (70.4) 19,143 (69.5) 24.3 (23.7–24.8) 24,048 (73.7) 30.5 (29.8–31.1)
  Less than once a week 9947 (8.9) 2668 (9.7) 26.8 (25.4–28.3) 3197 (9.8) 32.1 (30.6–33.7)
  At least once a week 14,922 (13.3) 3782 (13.7) 25.3(23.9–26.8) 3696 (11.3) 24.8 (23.4–26.1)
  Almost every day 8334 (7.4) 1969 (7.1) 23.6(22.1–25.2) 1679 (5.1) 20.1 (18.7–21.6)
  1. aData are from the fourth Indian National Family Health Survey. Frequency and prevalence with 95% CIs in parentheses are shown. All data are weighted to account for survey design. P value was calculated through the chi-square test
  2. bColumn percentages