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Table 3 Association between living arrangement and decline in functional capacity after three years for women (n = 1428)

From: Relationship of living arrangement with the decline in functional capacity in elderly people by gender: a longitudinal observational study

  Outcome/study population (%) Crude Model1b Model2c Model3d
OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Living arrangement
 With spouse only 9/374 (2.4%) 1 1 1 1
 Living alone 9/124 (7.3%) 3.17 (1.23–8.19) 1.49 (0.56–3.99) 1.68 (0.62–4.56) 1.64 (0.60–4.47)
 With child and his/her spouse 35/400 (8.8%) 3.89 (1.84–8.21) 2.47 (1.14–5.33) 2.41 (1.10–5.28) 2.25 (0.98–5.18)
 With child without his/her spouse 16/333 (4.8%) 2.05 (0.89–4.70) 1.20 (0.51–2.87) 1.02 (0.42–2.50) 1.05 (0.42–2.60)
 With other family/person 15/197 (7.6%) 3.34 (1.44–7.78) 2.41 (1.00–5.79) 2.36 (0.96–5.83) 2.27 (0.89–5.78)
Age
 Continuous -   1.21 (1.16–1.26) 1.21 (1.16–1.27) 1.20 (1.15–1.26)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥ 10 30/839 (3.6%)    1 1
 < 10 54/589 (9.2%)    2.19 (1.33–3.61) 2.21 (1.34–3.66)
Current drinking
 No 76/1228 (6.2%)    1 1
 Yes 8/200 (4.0%)    0.89 (0.41–1.96) 0.90 (0.41–2.00)
Current smoking
 No 83/1414 (5.9%)    1 1
 Yes 1/14 (7.1%)    1.20 (0.13–11.25) 1.40 (0.15–13.06)
History of major diseases
 No 60/1219 (4.9%)    1 1
 Yes 24/209 (11.5%)    2.70 (1.56–4.67) 2.78 (1.60–4.83)
Depressive symptoms (GDS5)
 Normal (< 2 points) 61/1244 (4.9%)    1 1
 Have depressive symptoms (≥ 2 points) 23/184 (12.5%)    2.81 (1.57–5.01) 2.61 (1.44–4.72)
Housework
 Mainly do 50/1174 (4.3%)     1
 Not mainly do 34/254 (13.4%)     1.32 (0.75–2.34)
Social participation
 Yes 66/1222 (5.4%)     1
 No 18/206 (8.7%)     1.10 (0.59–2.04)
Relationship with neighbors
 Frequent 79/1386 (5.7%)     1
 Not frequent 5/42 (11.9%)     3.37 (1.14–9.96)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted OR and 95% CI were estimated by multivariate logistic regression
  3. bModel 1: adjusted for age (continuous)
  4. cModel 2: adjusted for age (continuous), educational attainment, current drinking, current smoking, history of major diseases, and depressive symptoms
  5. dModel 3: adjusted for age (continuous), educational attainment, current drinking, current smoking, history of major diseases, depressive symptoms, housework, social participation, and relationship with neighbors