Skip to main content

Table 2 Association between living arrangement and decline in functional capacity after three years for men (n = 1199)

From: Relationship of living arrangement with the decline in functional capacity in elderly people by gender: a longitudinal observational study

  Outcome/study population (%) Crude Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
OR (95% CI)a OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Living arrangement
 With spouse only 19/370 (5.1%) 1 1 1 1
 Living alone 4/41 (9.8%) 2.00 (0.65–6.18) 1.56 (0.49–5.00) 1.30 (0.40–4.27) 1.85 (0.51–6.72)
 With child and his/her spouse 20/349 (5.7%) 1.12 (0.59–2.14) 0.97 (0.50–1.88) 0.85 (0.44–1.68) 0.89 (0.45–1.76)
 With child without his/her spouse 13/279 (4.7%) 0.90 (0.44–1.86) 0.99 (0.47–2.06) 0.88 (0.42–1.86) 0.93 (0.44–1.98)
 With other family/person 13/160 (8.1%) 1.63 (0.79–3.39) 1.84 (0.87–3.88) 1.61 (0.75–3.47) 1.65 (0.76–3.58)
Age
 Continuous -   1.13 (1.09–1.18) 1.11 (1.06–1.16) 1.11 (1.06–1.17)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥ 10 25/691 (3.6%)    1 1
 < 10 44/508 (8.7%)    1.83 (1.05–3.17) 1.85 (1.06–3.23)
Current drinking
 No 37/391 (9.5%)    1 1
 Yes 32/808 (4.0%)    0.48 (0.29–0.80) 0.49 (0.29–0.82)
Current smoking
 No 58/1012 (5.7%)    1 1
 Yes 11/187 (5.9%)    1.52 (0.76–3.06) 1.37 (0.67–2.78)
History of major diseases
 No 48/874 (5.5%)    1 1
 Yes 21/325 (6.5%)    1.12 (0.64–1.97) 1.06 (0.60–1.88)
Depressive symptoms (GDS5)
 Normal (< 2 points) 53/1059 (5.0%)    1 1
 Have depressive symptoms (≥ 2 points) 16/140 (11.4%)    2.40 (1.28–4.50) 2.08 (1.09–3.98)
Housework
 Mainly do 13/289 (4.5%)     1
 Not mainly do 56/910 (6.2%)     1.74 (0.85–3.56)
Social participation
 Yes 57/1109 (5.1%)     1
 No 12/90 (13.3%)     1.27 (0.60–2.70)
Relationship with neighbors
 Frequent 60/1145 (5.2%)     1
 Not frequent 9/54 (16.7%)     3.27 (1.41–7.61)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted OR and 95% CI were estimated by multivariate logistic regression
  3. bModel 1: adjusted for age (continuous)
  4. cModel 2: adjusted for age (continuous), educational attainment, current drinking, current smoking, history of major diseases, and depressive symptoms
  5. dModel 3: adjusted for age (continuous), educational attainment, current drinking, current smoking, history of major diseases, depressive symptoms, housework, social participation, and relationship with neighbors