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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population at baseline

From: Relationship of living arrangement with the decline in functional capacity in elderly people by gender: a longitudinal observational study

  Living arrangement
With spouse only Living alone With child and his/her spouse With child without his/her spouse With other family/person P valuea
Total n= 744 n= 165 n= 749 n= 612 n= 357  
Age (years)
 65–69 266 (35.8%) 26 (15.8%) 197 (26.3%) 218 (35.6%) 129 (36.1%) < 0.001
 70–74 273 (36.7%) 57 (34.5%) 243 (32.4%) 207 (33.8%) 114 (31.9%)
 75–79 141 (19.0%) 49 (29.7%) 201 (26.8%) 116 (19.0%) 80 (22.4%)
 80–84 53 (7.1%) 26 (15.8%) 85 (11.3%) 52 (8.5%) 27 (7.6%)
 ≥ 85 11 (1.5%) 7 (4.2%) 23 (3.1%) 19 (3.1%) 7 (2.0%)
 Mean ± standard deviation years (72.0 ± 4.9) (74.8 ± 5.3) (73.5 ± 5.4) (72.4 ± 5.4) (72.2 ± 5.3)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥ 10 493 (66.3%) 104 (63.0%) 416 (55.5%) 333 (54.4%) 184 (51.5%) < 0.001
 < 10 251 (33.7%) 61 (37.0%) 333 (44.5%) 279 (45.6%) 173 (48.5%)
Current drinking
 No 433 (58.2%) 119 (72.1%) 461 (61.5%) 389 (63.6%) 217 (60.8%) 0.014
 Yes 311 (41.8%) 46 (27.9%) 288 (38.5%) 223 (36.4%) 140 (39.2%)
Current smoking
 No 692 (93.0%) 153 (92.7%) 699 (93.3%) 556 (90.8%) 326 (91.3%) 0.408
 Yes 52 (7.0%) 12 (7.3%) 50 (6.7%) 56 (9.2%) 31 (8.7%)
History of major diseasesb
 No 588 (79.0%) 135 (81.8%) 590 (78.8%) 488 (79.7%) 292 (81.8%) 0.731
 Yes 156 (21.0%) 30 (18.2%) 159 (21.2%) 124 (20.3%) 65 (18.2%)
Depressive symptoms (GDS5)
 Normal (< 2 points) 656 (88.2%) 134 (81.2%) 666 (88.9%) 537 (87.7%) 310 (86.8%) 0.097
 Have depressive symptoms (≥ 2 points) 88 (11.8%) 31 (18.8%) 83 (11.1%) 75 (12.3%) 47 (13.2%)
Housework
 Mainly do 449 (60.3%) 156 (94.5%) 311 (41.5%) 356 (58.2%) 191 (53.5%) < 0.001
 Not mainly do 295 (39.7%) 9 (5.5%) 438 (58.5%) 256 (41.8%) 166 (46.5%)
Social participation
 Yes 667 (89.7%) 127 (77.0%) 670 (89.5%) 545 (89.1%) 322 (90.2%) < 0.001
 No 77 (10.3%) 38 (23.0%) 79 (10.5%) 67 (10.9%) 35 (9.8%)
Relationship with neighbors
 Frequent 710 (95.4%) 148 (89.7%) 735 (98.1%) 593 (96.9%) 345 (96.6%) < 0.001
 Not frequent 34 (4.6%) 17 (10.3%) 14 (1.9%) 19 (3.1%) 12 (3.4%)
Men n= 370 n= 41 n= 349 n= 279 n= 160
Age (years)
 65–69 106 (28.6%) 8 (19.5%) 82 (23.5%) 108 (38.7%) 66 (41.3%) < 0.001
 70–74 137 (37.0%) 14 (34.1%) 116 (33.2%) 90 (32.3%) 41 (25.6%)
 75–79 82 (22.2%) 10 (24.4%) 95 (27.2%) 49 (17.6%) 37 (23.1%)
 80–84 35 (9.5%) 5 (12.2%) 42 (12.0%) 27 (9.7%) 12 (7.5%)
 ≥ 85 10 (2.7%) 4 (9.8%) 14 (4.0%) 5 (1.8%) 4 (2.5%)
 Mean ± standard deviation years (72.9 ± 5.2) (74.7 ± 6.2) (73.9 ± 5.6) (72.1 ± 5.3) (72.0 ± 5.5)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥ 10 246 (66.5%) 23 (56.1%) 187 (53.6%) 155 (55.6%) 80 (50.0%) 0.001
 < 10 124 (33.5%) 18 (43.9%) 162 (46.4%) 124 (44.4%) 80 (50.0%)
Current drinking
 No 117 (31.6%) 14 (34.1%) 118 (33.8%) 93 (33.3%) 49 (30.6%) 0.940
 Yes 253 (68.4%) 27 (65.9%) 231 (66.2%) 186 (66.7%) 111 (69.4%)
Current smoking
 No 321 (86.8%) 31 (75.6%) 301 (86.2%) 226 (81.0%) 133 (83.1%) 0.111
 Yes 49 (13.2%) 10 (24.4%) 48 (13.8%) 53 (19.0%) 27 (16.9%)
History of major diseasesb       
 No 269 (72.7%) 31 (75.6%) 256 (73.4%) 201 (72.0%) 117 (73.1%) 0.990
 Yes 101 (27.3%) 10 (24.4%) 93 (26.6%) 78 (28.0%) 43 (26.9%)
Depressive symptoms (GDS5)
 Normal (< 2 points) 332 (89.7%) 30 (73.2%) 308 (88.3%) 253 (90.7%) 136 (85.0%) 0.011
 Have depressive symptoms (≥ 2 points) 38 (10.3%) 11 (26.8%) 41 (11.7%) 26 (9.3%) 24 (15.0%)
Housework
 Mainly do 84 (22.7%) 35 (85.4%) 59 (16.9%) 69 (24.7%) 42 (26.3%) < 0.001
 Not mainly do 286 (77.3%) 6 (14.6%) 290 (83.1%) 210 (75.3%) 118 (73.8%)
Social participation
 Yes 340 (91.9%) 36 (87.8%) 328 (94.0%) 255 (91.4%) 150 (93.8%) 0.485
 No 30 (8.1%) 5 (12.2%) 21 (6.0%) 24 (8.6%) 10 (6.3%)
Relationship with neighbors
 Frequent 351 (94.9%) 36 (87.8%) 342 (98.0%) 265 (95.0%) 151 (94.4%) 0.020
 Not frequent 19 (5.1%) 5 (12.2%) 7 (2.0%) 14 (5.0%) 9 (5.6%)
Women n= 374 n= 124 n= 400 n= 333 n= 197
Age (years)
 65–69 160 (42.8%) 18 (14.5%) 115 (28.8%) 110 (33.0%) 63 (32.0%) < 0.001
 70–74 136 (36.4%) 43 (34.7%) 127 (31.8%) 117 (35.1%) 73 (37.1%)
 75–79 59 (15.8%) 39 (31.5%) 106 (26.5%) 67 (20.1%) 43 (21.8%)
 80–84 18 (4.8%) 21 (16.9%) 43 (10.8%) 25 (7.5%) 15 (7.6%)
 ≥ 85 1 (0.3%) 3 (2.4%) 9 (2.3%) 14 (4.2%) 3 (1.5%)
 Mean ± standard deviation years (71.0 ± 4.2) (74.9 ± 5.1) (73.2 ± 5.2) (72.8 ± 5.5) (72.4 ± 5.1)
Educational attainment (years)
 ≥ 10 247 (66.0%) 81 (65.3%) 229 (57.3%) 178 (53.5%) 104 (52.8%) 0.002
 < 10 127 (34.0%) 43 (34.7%) 171 (42.8%) 155 (46.5%) 93 (47.2%)
Current drinking
 No 316 (84.5%) 105 (84.7%) 343 (85.8%) 296 (88.9%) 168 (85.3%) 0.509
 Yes 58 (15.5%) 19 (15.3%) 57 (14.3%) 37 (11.1%) 29 (14.7%)
Current smoking
 No 371 (99.2%) 122 (98.4%) 398 (99.5%) 330 (99.1%) 193 (98.0%) 0.428
 Yes 3 (0.8%) 2 (1.6%) 2 (0.5%) 3 (0.9%) 4 (2.0%)
History of major diseasesb
 No 319 (85.3%) 104 (83.9%) 334 (83.5%) 287 (86.2%) 175 (88.8%) 0.491
 Yes 55 (14.7%) 20 (16.1%) 66 (16.5%) 46 (13.8%) 22 (11.2%)
Depressive symptoms (GDS5)
 Normal (< 2 points) 324 (86.6%) 104 (83.9%) 358 (89.5%) 284 (85.3%) 174 (88.3%) 0.340
 Have depressive symptoms (≥ 2 points) 50 (13.4%) 20 (16.1%) 42 (10.5%) 49 (14.7%) 23 (11.7%)
Housework
 Mainly do 365 (97.6%) 121 (97.6%) 252 (63.0%) 287 (86.2%) 149 (75.6%) < 0.001
 Not mainly do 9 (2.4%) 3 (2.4%) 148 (37.0%) 46 (13.8%) 48 (24.4%)
Social participation
 Yes 327 (87.4%) 91 (73.4%) 342 (85.5%) 290 (87.1%) 172 (87.3%) 0.002
 No 47 (12.6%) 33 (26.6%) 58 (14.5%) 43 (12.9%) 25 (12.7%)
Relationship with neighbors
 Frequent 359 (96.0%) 112 (90.3%) 393 (98.3%) 328 (98.5%) 194 (98.5%) < 0.001
 Not frequent 15 (4.0%) 12 (9.7%) 7 (1.8%) 5 (1.5%) 3 (1.5%)
  1. aChi-square test
  2. bHistory of major diseases was defined as having any one of the following diseases: stroke, myocardial infarction/angina, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, femoral neck fracture, and cancer