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Table 4 Hazard ratios of the cumulative incidence rate of colorectal cancer according to the progression of metabolic syndrome in women

From: The relationship between metabolic syndrome and the incidence of colorectal cancer

Characteristics Category HR (95% CI)
Non–Adjusted aModel 1 bModel 2 cModel 3 dModel 4 eModel 5
Metabolic syndrome
(MetS) stage
Normal Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref Ref.
Pre-MetS 1.39 (1.32 1.46) 1.14 (1.08 1.20) 1.13 (1.07 1.19) 1.12 (1.05 1.20) 1.09 (1.01 1.16) 1.09 (1.02 1.17)
MetS 2.15 (2.01 2.30) 1.50 (1.40 1.61) 1.49 (1.39 1.59) 1.52 (1.40 1.66) 1.39 (1.26 1.52) 1.39 (1.26 1.53)
Age 30-39   Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
40-49   1.74 (1.28 2.36) 1.77 (1.30 2.41) 1.66 (1.15 2.40) 1.62 (1.12 2.34) 1.64 (1.13 2.37)
50-59   4.03 (2.99 5.43) 4.19 (3.10 5.66) 3.89 (2.71 5.59) 3.71 (2.58 5.33) 3.76 (2.62 5.40)
60   6.38 (4.74 8.60) 6.74 (4.99 9.12) 6.37 (4.44 9.15) 5.97 (4.15 8.60) 6.04 (4.20 8.68)
Smoking Non-smoker    Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Ex-smoker    1.25 (1.06 1.49) 1.32 (1.08 1.60) 1.31 (1.07 1.59) 1.32 (1.08 1.60)
Smoker    1.25 (1.10 1.41) 1.23 (1.06 1.43) 1.23 (1.06 1.43) 1.23 (1.06 1.43)
Alcohol consumption No drink    Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
2–3/per month    1.11 (1.05 1.18) 1.12 (1.05 1.21) 1.12 (1.05 1.21) 1.12 (1.05 1.20)
1–4/per week    1.20 (1.05 1.36) 1.13 (0.96 1.33) 1.13 (0.96 1.33) 1.13 (0.96 1.33)
5/per week    0.99 (0.79 1.24) 1.07 (0.82 1.40) 1.07 (0.82 1.40) 1.07 (0.82 1.40)
Physical exercise, per week No exercise    Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
1–4/per week    1.04 (0.98 1.10) 1.03 (0.96 1.11) 1.03 (0.96 1.11) 1.03 (0.96 1.12)
5/per week    0.96 (0.91 1.01) 0.96 (0.89 1.02) 0.95 (0.89 1.02) 0.96 (0.90 1.02)
FHx of cancer No     Ref. Ref. Ref.
Yes     1.09 (1.01 1.17) 1.09 (1.01 1.17) 1.09 (1.01 1.17)
Hemoglobin
(g/dL)
> 10      Ref Ref
8–10      1.15 (0.94 1.40) 1.15 (0.94 1.40)
< 8      0.91 (0.55 1.51) 0.90 (0.54 1.50)
Serum creatinine
(mg/dL)
≤ 1.5      Ref Ref
> 1.5      0.92 (0.75 1.13) 0.92 (0.75 1.13)
eTotal cholesterol(mg/dL)       1.03 (1.01 1.04) 1.03 (1.01 1.04)
fALT (IU/L)       1.00 (0.99 1.02) 1.00 (0.99 1.02)
Height (cm) < 154      Ref  
154–156      1.05 (0.97 1.13)  
157–160      0.91 (0.88 1.03)  
≥161      0.94 (0.85 1.03)  
Weight (kg) < 52      Ref  
52–55      1.03 (0.94 1.12)  
56–61      1.09 (1.01 1.19)  
≥ 62      1.18 (1.08 1.29)  
eBMI (kg/m2) < 18.5       1.01 (0.84 1.22)
18.5–22.9       Ref
23.0–24.9       1.09 (1.01 1.17)
25.0–29.9       1.13 (1.05 1.22)
≥ 30.0       1.20 (1.03 1.39)
  1. Values are presented as β (95% confidence interval)
  2. MetS metabolic syndrome, Ref reference, FHx family history, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BMI body mass index
  3. aModel 1: adjusted for age
  4. bModel 2: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise
  5. cModel 3: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, FHx of cancer
  6. dModel 4: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, FHx of cancer, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, total cholesterol and ALT, hight, weight
  7. eModel 5: adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, FHx of cancer, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, total cholesterol and ALT, BMI
  8. fTotal cholesterol, fALT: These continuous variables were analyzed by increasing 10 units in the original data to improve the readability of the hazard ratio analysis