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Table 8 Summary of full-text articles which reported genetically modified foods as a public risk in food marketing

From: Public health risks related to food safety issues in the food market: a systematic literature review

AuthorsCountry/regionArticle typeMain message/findings
Swanson NL, et al., 2014 [83]USAResearch articleThis study found that the Pearson correlation coefficients are highly significant (< 10−4) between the percentage of GE corn and soy planted in the USA and hypertension (R = 0.961), stroke (R = 0.983), diabetes prevalence (R = 0.983), diabetes incidence (R = 0.955), obesity (R = 0.962), lipoprotein metabolism disorder (R = 0.955), Alzheimer’s (R = 0.937), Parkinson’s (R = 0.952), multiple sclerosis (R = 0.876), hepatitis C (R = 0.946), end-stage renal disease (R = 0.958), acute kidney failure (R = 0.967), cancers of the thyroid (R = 0.938), liver (R = 0.911), bladder (R = 0.945), pancreas (R = 0.841), kidney (R = 0.940), and myeloid leukemia (R = 0.889).
Pattron DD, 2005 [84]Eastern CaribbeanResearch articleThis study investigated health implications associated with GM foods in Trinidad. The survey found that diarrhea, vomiting, rashes, difficulty in breathing, respiratory problems, hormonal imbalances, and susceptibility to infection or immunosuppression are common reported health problems associated with consuming GM foods. These medical claims were supported by medical certificates, diagnosis, treatment regimens, and physician letters and/or prescriptions. Foods consumed were validated against the list of known genetically modified foods
Bakshi A, 2003 [85]General settingResearch articleThere are concerns about the safety of genetically modified crops. The concerns are that they may contain allergenic substances due to introduction of new genes into crops. Another concern is that genetic engineering often involves the use of antibiotic-resistance genes as “selectable markers” and this could lead to production of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics. This would create a serious public health problem. The genetically modified crops might contain other toxic substances (such as enhanced amounts of heavy metals).
Aris A and Leblanc S, 2011 [86]CanadaResearch articleThis study highlighted the presence of pesticide-associated genetically modified foods in maternal, fetal, and non-pregnant women’s blood in Quebec, Canada. 3-MPPA and Cry1Ab toxins are clearly detectable and appear to cross the placenta to the fetus.