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Table 5 Summary of full-text articles which reported food adulteration as a public risk in food marketing

From: Public health risks related to food safety issues in the food market: a systematic literature review

AuthorsCountry/regionArticle typeMain message/findings
Ali Anma, 2013 [47]BangladeshRegulatory paperThis study investigated food safety and public health issues in Bangladesh. The study pointed out that most of the foodstuffs, be it manufactured or processed, are adulterated in varying degrees. The puffed rice is contaminated by using the urea fertilizer to make it whiter and bigger in size. Ghee is adulterated rotten milk, palm oil, soybean, animal or vegetable fat, potato paste, and with artificial color flavors.
Nasreen S and Ahmed T, 2014 [49]BangladeshResearch articleThis study investigated the magnitude of food adulteration during 1995–2011 and consumer awareness in Dhaka City. The study reported that 40–54% of daily-consumed food was adulterated during 1995–2011. More than 35 food items were commonly adulterated. Some of the hazardous adulterants were white eggs of farm hens colored red with textile dye to sell as local hen eggs; inject formalin through the gills; or dip fishes in water treated with chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbon; DDT powder to prevent rotting; textile dye in sweetened curd; toxic chemical, potato smash, cow’s fat and intestine in ghee; chemicals, color, burnt mobil from rail locomotives, and burnt oil from electric transformer in edible oils; urea in rice to make it whiter; and many more others.
Chanda T, et al., 2012 [50]BangladeshResearch articleThis study aimed to detect the type of adulterants and preservatives added to the incoming fluid milk from rural areas to the Barisal, Bangladesh. The results indicated that 100% of the milk samples were adulterated with water. Cane sugar, powdered milk, and starch were detected as 26.0, 14.0, and 12.0% in the milk samples, respectively. Out of all samples, 10.0% was adulterated with formalin and 20.0% with sodium bicarbonate.
Singuluri H and Sukumaran M, 2014 [51]IndiaResearch articleThe study assessed adulteration of natural milk with various illegal substances. The results pointed out that sucrose and skim milk powder were present in 22% and 80% of the milk samples respectively. Urea, neutralizers, and salt were present in 60%, 26%, and 82% of the milk samples respectively. Formalin, detergents, and hydrogen peroxide were present in 32%, 44%, and 32% of the milk samples obtained.
Barham GS, et al., 2014 [52]PakistanResearch articleThis study examined various adulterants of milk in Pakistan. The study found that water (73%), detergent (32%), cane sugar (22%), caustic soda (20%), rice flour (17%), sodium chloride and skimmed milk powder (15%), hydrogen peroxide (13%), starch (12%), formalin (11%), urea and vegetable oil (10%), boric acid (8%), ammonium sulfate (6%), glucose (5%), sorbitol (4%), and arrowroot (1%) were found in milk samples.
Waghray K, et al., 2011 [53]IndiaResearch articleThis study identified the adulteration in different food products available in the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The findings showed that chili powder samples showed the presence of metanil yellow (8%) added color (92%) and saw dust (48%). Dry ginger samples (8.33%) showed the presence of an unpermitted colored dye ultramarine blue. The sweet meat samples showed the presence of aluminum foil (4.3%) instead of silver foil. Coconut burfi samples contained unpermitted color orange II and cotton candy and floss candy showed the presence of rhodamine B. The total percentage of adulteration in the food samples was found to be 49.41%.
Peng G-J, et al., 2017 [54]TaiwanResearch articleThis study outlines the major cases of food adulteration that occurred in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015, including the adulteration of food additives with plasticizers, starch products with maleic anhydride, olive oil with copper chlorophyll, lard with recycled cooking oil, and processed soymilk curd with dimethyl/diethyl yellow.
Woldemariam HW and Abera BD, 2014 [55]EthiopiaResearch articleThis study investigated the extent of adulteration of selected foods in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. The result showed that 6.7% of butter samples were adulterated with vegetable sources, mainly mashed potatoes; 8% of coffee powder samples were adulterated with roasted cereals; 15% of honey samples were adulterated with sugar or invert sugar; 1.3% of the red pepper powder samples were adulterated with brick powder; and 2.7% of edible oil samples contain argemone oil.
Assefa A, et al., 2013 [56]EthiopiaResearch articleThis study investigated the causes of dropsy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The result indicated that 47 of the 280 edible oils analyzed were adulterated with argemone oil.