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Table 3 Summary of full-text articles which reported microbial contamination of foods as a public risk in food marketing

From: Public health risks related to food safety issues in the food market: a systematic literature review

AuthorsCountry/regionArticle typeMain message/findings
Gabriel AA, et al., 2007 [17]PhilippinesResearch articleThis study assessed the microbiological quality of retailed mung bean sprouts. Ninety-four percent of the samples tested positive for the presence of Salmonella spp. and some samples had Coliform and Escherichia coli counts as high as 5.90 and 5.50 log10 CFU g−1, respectively. The poor microbiological quality of most of the tested sprouts was attributed to unhygienic sprout production and retailing practices.
Adeyanju GT and Ishola O, 2014 [18]NigeriaResearch articleAccessed the levels of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in frozen poultry meats including their antimicrobial resistance pattern in Ibadan. Thirty-three percent and 43.4% of samples from retail markets tested positive for Salmonella and Escherichia coli respectively. Salmonella enterica spp. showed 93% resistance to tetracycline and 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin, while Escherichia coli showed 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin.
Giammanco GM, et al., 2011 [19]ItalyResearch articleThis study assessed common food pathogens in cheese collected from retailing markets in Palermo. The result indicated that 4% and 44% of the samples, respectively, did not comply with the acceptability levels for S. aureus and E. coli. A high contamination of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcaceae was found in 42% and 50% of the cheeses analyzed, respectively. The results indicated that poor husbandry and poor hygiene practices during milk collection or preservation or during cheese production processes and handling. In addition, the retail sale conditions may have played a role in cheese contamination.
Zhao C, et al., 2001 [20]USAResearch articleThis study assessed the prevalence of common food pathogens from retail raw meats in Washington, DC. Results of the study showed that 70.7% of chicken samples were contaminated with Campylobacter. Approximately 14% of turkey samples yielded Campylobacter, whereas fewer pork (1.7%) and beef (0.5%) samples were positive for Campylobacter. Thirty-eight point seven percent of chicken samples yielded E. coli, while 19.0% of the beef samples, 16.3% of the pork samples, and 11.9% of the turkey samples were positive for E. coli. However, only 3.0% of the retail meat samples tested were positive for Salmonella.
Cárdenas C, et al., 2013 [21]MexicoResearch articleThis study evaluated the microbiological quality of tomatoes and peppers from markets and supermarkets in Monterrey, Mexico. The results showed that the presence of indicator organisms was relatively high in peppers (average 4.4 to 4.7 log CFU/g for total mesophilic, 3.25 to 3.73 log CFU/g for total coliforms, and 1.69 log CFU/g for fecal coliforms). Tomatoes and peppers showed the greatest microorganism levels (~ 1 log CFU/g higher) in comparison with the other varieties.
Filiousis G, et al., 2009 [22]GreeceShort communicationThis study analyzed prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from open-air food markets in Thessaloniki, Greece. Thirty (14.3%) contained L. monocytogenes with the highest prevalence in raw meat (27.5%), raw meat products (18%), and cheese (8%). The strains were susceptible to 16 antimicrobials, except one strain which displayed resistance to tetracycline.
Pérez-Rodríguez F, et al., 2010 [23]SpainResearch articleThis study evaluated hygiene practices and microbiological quality of cooked meat products during slicing and handling at retail in Cordoba, Spain. Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria inocua were isolated from 7.35% (5/68) and 8.82% (6/68) of analyzed samples, respectively. Deficient handling practices were more common in small sized establishments.
Yagoub SO, 2009 [24]SudanResearch articleThis study aimed to isolate Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. from raw fish sold in fish market in Khartoum. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 83 out of 150 (55%) randomly collected fishes, the most dominant isolates were E. coli, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. This together with the highly pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae including Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp., Proteus spp., and Alklegens spp. Potential pathogenic organisms were also among the isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 62% of randomly collected fishes.
Kumari S and Sarkar PK, 2014 [25]IndiaResearch articleThis study characterized Bacillus cereus group from various marketed dairy products in India. The prevalence of B. cereus group in cheese, ice cream, milk powder, and milk was high (33–55%), whereas it was low in butter and paneer samples (20% and 4%, respectively). The level of contamination in the various dairy products was up to 108 cfu g−1 or ml−1. An antibiogram of 144 isolates of B. cereus group was obtained using 14 different antibiotics commonly used against foodborne diseases. All the 144 isolates were multidrug (at least five antibiotics) resistant.
Domınguez C, et al., 2002 [26]SpainResearch articleThis study assessed prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in retail chicken meat in Spain. Salmonella was isolated from 71 (35.83%) of the samples analyzed. The predominant serovars were S. enteritidis (47.88%), S. hadar (25.35%), and serotype 4,12:b:-(II) (19.71%). Other serovars such as S. mbandaka, S. derby, S. virchow, and S. paratyphi B were isolated in much lower levels. Thermophilic campylobacters were isolated in 49.50% of the samples studied.
Vantarakis A, et al., 2011 [27]GreeceResearch articleThis study assessed occurrence of microorganisms of public health and spoilage significance in fruit juices sold in retail markets in Greece. Bacteria were isolated from 51 samples (42.5%) and fungi from 78 samples (65%). Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in four of the analyzed samples (3.34%), and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in four different samples (3.34%). In 11 samples (9.1%), the total number of microorganisms detected was as high as 125 CFU. Acidophilic microorganisms were isolated from 26 samples (21.7%) and Blastomyces was detected in 46 samples (38.3%).
Heredia N, et al., 2001 [28]MexicoResearch noteThis study assessed microbiological Condition of Ground Meat Retailed in Monterrey, Mexico. Over 75% of the samples contained 105 total mesophilic microorganisms per g, and over 40% had 106 total coliforms per g. Fecal coliforms were present in most samples. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 2.3% of the samples, Salmonella spp. in 11.4%, Listeria spp. in 62%, and L. monocytogenes in 16%. Escherichia coli was detected in 76% of samples. Fusarium spp. and Mucor spp. were detected in 3.4% of the samples, and low levels of yeast in 93%.
Nel S, et al., 2004 [28]South AfricaResearch articleThis study assessed bacterial populations associated with meat from the deboning room of a high-throughput red meat abattoir in South Africa. Almost the counts exceeded the microbiological guidelines for raw meat. The average B. cereus count over the sampling period was 8.32 × 103 cfu, g−1, for S. aureus and Pseudomonas spp. 1.72 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 cfu g−1 respectively and for E. coli 3.4 × 105 cfu g−1. Sixty percent of the samples were positive for presumptive Salmonella spp. while 52% of the samples tested positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes. The aerobic plate and Enterobacteriaceae counts were 1.7 × 107and 4.6 × 106 cfu g−1, respectively.
Elson R, et al., 2004 [29]UKResearch articleThis study examined microbiological quality of ready-to-eat cold sliced meats from catering and retail premises in the UK. Most ready-to-eat meat samples (75%) were of satisfactory/acceptable microbiological quality and 25% were of unsatisfactory/unacceptable quality. Two cold meat samples (< 1%) were of unacceptable microbiological quality because of the presence of Campylobacter jejuni in 25 g and Listeria monocytogenes at 3.4 × 104 CFU g−1.
Hosseini A. 2011 [30]IranResearch articleThis study examined bacterial contamination of table eggs from retails markets in Iran. The result showed that 19 samples were contaminated by E. coli, four samples by Proteus spp., and one sample by Klebsiella spp. Average colony count of coli form bacteria was 20 cfu/g and E. coli was 12/6 cfu/g.
Banerjee M and Sarkar PK, 2003 [31]IndiaResearch articleThis study investigated microbiological quality of some retail spices in India. The total aerobic mesophilic bacteria count showed that 51% of the samples were in the unacceptable level (> 106 cfu g−1). While molds were detected in 97% of the samples, yeast was found in only one. Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and members of Enterobacteriaceae occurred in 85, 59, 11, and 85%, respectively of the kinds. Coliforms and fecal coliforms were found in 33 and 15%, respectively of the kinds. Escherichia coli was detected in only one sample, of garlic. Salmonella and Shigella were found only in 2.6% of the samples.
Vindigni SM, et al., 2007 [32]ThailandResearch articleThis study assessed prevalence of foodborne microorganisms in retail foods in Thailand. Of the 200 samples tested, 121 (61%) were positive for at least one Salmonella spp. serogroup. A total of 175 Salmonella spp. were isolated. The most common serotype was Salmonella Anatum, followed by S. Corvallis and S. Derby. Campylobacter spp. were found in 31 (15.5%) of 200 samples. C. jejuni was isolated from 15% of fresh market chicken samples and 35% of supermarket chicken samples. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 42 (21%) samples; fresh market chicken had significantly higher A. butzleri contamination than supermarket chicken. The presence of Enterococcus spp., an indication of fecal contamination, was detected in 188 (94%) samples, including 100% of the beef and pork sources.
Simforian E, et al., 2015 [33]TanzaniaResearch articleThis study assessed microbiological quality of raw fruit juice in Tanzania. The results showed that the total plate counts (TPC) ranged between 2.32 and 8.54 (Log cfu/ml). About 72.2% of juice samples had TPC above Codex recommended maximum levels (3.7–4.7 Log cfu/ml). The prevalence of Escherichia coli in the juices was 80% with a range between 0.0 and 5.0 (Log MPN/ml) suggesting of direct fecal contamination or contamination from the environment.
Mailafia S, et al., 2017 [34]NigeriaResearch articleThis study identified fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market. Nigeria Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence in pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species) (10%), Fusarium solani (8%), and Aspergillus flavus (5%). The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species), P. digitatum, and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5%) from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively.
Hunter PR, et al., 1994 [35]EnglandResearch articleThis study isolated food spoilage yeasts from salads purchased from delicatessens in the Warrington area, England. The results indicated that Of the 87 salads, only 19% had plate counts greater than 10,000 organisms/g. Coliforms were isolated from 3 samples, E. coli from one, and Listeria monocytogenes from one. By contrast, yeasts were isolated from 76% of the salads and at counts greater than 10,000 organisms/g in 31%. Twenty-one different yeast species were isolated, of which the most common were Saccharomyces dairensis and Saccharomyces exiguus.
Islam M, 2017 [36]BangladeshThesisThis study assessed bacteriological quality of street-vended and expired food items collected from different areas in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Out of total 35food samples (expired and street), enteric bacteria were found in 17 (48.6%) food samples containing E. coli, Vibrio, Shigella, and Salmonella species.