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Table 5 ORs for relationships between PTB risk and fermented food intake frequency before pregnancy in women who have a history of PTB by logistic regression analysis, (A) less than 34 weeks, (B) 34+0 to 36+6 weeks (Additional analysis)

From: Fermented foods and preterm birth risk from a prospective large cohort study: the Japan Environment and Children’s study

  (A) Early preterm delivery (< 34 weeks) (B) Late preterm (34–36 weeks)
Cases/All (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value Cases/All (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Miso soup, n (%)
 <1 day a week 7/311 (2.25) Reference   32/311 (10.3) Reference  
 1–2 days a week 14/534 (2.62) 0.99 (0.38–2.62) 0.991 62/534 (11.6) 1.18 (0.74–1.91) 0.481
 3–4 days a week 26/725 (3.59) 1.41 (0.59–3.39) 0.441 80/725 (11.0) 1.08 (0.68–1.71) 0.758
 ≥5 days a week 26/937 (2.77) 1.17 (0.49–2.82) 0.721 105/937 (11.2) 1.03 (0.66–1.61) 0.897
Yogurt, n (%)
 <1 time a week 28/844 (3.32) Reference   87/844 (10.3) Reference  
 1–4 times a week 33/1097 (3.01) 0.89 (0.50–1.57) 0.678 132/1097 (12.0) 1.26 (0.92–1.73) 0.146
 ≥5 times a week 12/566 (2.12) 0.65 (0.30–1.38) 0.261 60/566 (10.6) 1.08 (0.74–1.57) 0.692
Cheese, n (%)
 <1 time a week 33/1161 (2.84) Reference   122/1161 (10.5) Reference  
 1–2 times a week 26/782 (3.32) 1.40 (0.79–2.49) 0.247 99/782 (12.7) 1.33 (0.98–1.80) 0.065
 ≥3 times a week 14/564 (2.48) 0.86 (0.42–1.78) 0.686 58/564 (10.3) 0.99 (0.70–1.41) 0.962
Fermented soybeans, n (%)
 <1time a week 36/965 (3.73) Reference   104/965 (10.8) Reference  
 1–2 times a week 21/858 (2.45) 0.52 (0.28–0.97) 0.039 95/858 (11.1) 1.03 (0.75–1.41) 0.863
 ≥3 times a week 16/684 (2.34) 0.52 (0.26–1.02) 0.056 80/684 (11.7) 1.03 (0.74–1.44) 0.859
  1. Note: Adjusted OR was estimated by applying multivariable analyses considering the following confounders;(A) mother age, BMI, smoking history, parity, previous, educational background, household income and working ≥42 h/week, (B) mother age, BMI, smoking history, parity, previous, educational background, household income and working ≥42 h/week and part-timer. Their categories were shown in method section