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Table 4 Odds ratios (ORs) for relationships between PTB risk and fermented food intake frequency before pregnancy by logistic regression analysis, (A)less than 34 weeks, (B) 34 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks

From: Fermented foods and preterm birth risk from a prospective large cohort study: the Japan Environment and Children’s study

  (A) Early preterm delivery (< 34 weeks) (B) Late preterm (34–36 weeks)
Cases/All (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value Cases/all (%) Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Miso soup, n (%)
 < 1 day a week 69/11,008 (0.63) Reference   298/11,008 (2.71) Reference  
 1–2 days a week 66/18,207 (0.36) 0.58 (0.40–0.85) 0.005 456/18,207 (2.50) 0.93 (0.79―1.09) 0.354
 3–4 days a week 100/21,645 (0.46) 0.69 (0.49–0.98) 0.039 543/21,645 (2.51) 0.97 (0.83―1.13) 0.660
 ≥ 5 days a week 102/26,807 (0.38) 0.62 (0.44–0.87) 0.006 709/26,807 (2.64) 1.00 (0.86―1.16) 0.959
Yogurt, n (%)
 < 1 time a week 129/25,354 (0.51) Reference   656/25,354 (2.59) Reference  
 1–4 times a week 147/33,129 (0.44) 0.83 (0.64–1.09) 0.185 863/33,129 (2.60) 1.01 (0.91―1.13) 0.860
 ≥ 5 times a week 61/19,184 (0.32) 0.62 (0.44–0.87) 0.006 487/19,184 (2.54) 0.98 (0.86―1.11) 0.694
Cheese, n (%)
 < 1 time a week 176/37,567 (0.47) Reference   956/37,567 (2.54) Reference  
 1–2 times a week 100/23,861 (0.42) 0.92 (0.70–1.22) 0.570 637 /23,861 (2.67) 1.07 (0.96―1.19) 0.214
 ≥ 3 times a week 61/16,239 (0.38) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.053 413 /16,239 (2.54) 1.02 (0.90―1.16) 0.738
Fermented soybeans, n (%)
 < 1time a week 152/30,609 (0.50) Reference   803/30,609 (2.62) Reference  
 1–2 times a week 123/27,474 (0.45) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.373 690/27,474 (2.51) 0.97 (0.87―1.09) 0.639
 ≥ 3 times a week 62/19,584 (0.32) 0.60 (0.43–0.84) 0.003 513/19,584 (2.62) 1.03 (0.91―1.16) 0.655
  1. Note: Adjusted OR was estimated by applying multivariable analyses considering the following confounders; (A) mother age, BMI, smoking history, parity, previous, educational background, household income, and working ≥ 42 h/week, (B) mother age, BMI, smoking history, parity, previous, educational background, household income, and working ≥ 42 h/week and part-timer. Their categories were shown in the “Methods” section