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Table 3 Odds ratios (OR) for relationships between preterm birth (PTB) risk and fermented food intake frequency before pregnancy by using logistic regression analysis, Japan Environment and Children’s birth-cohort Study (JECS)

From: Fermented foods and preterm birth risk from a prospective large cohort study: the Japan Environment and Children’s study

  Cases/all (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) p value
Miso soup, n (%)
 ≤ 1 day a week 367/11,008 (3.33) Reference   Reference  
 1–2 days a week 522/18,207 (2.87) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.025 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.053
 3–4 days a week 643/21,645 (2.97) 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 0.073 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.228
 ≥ 5 days a week 811/26,807 (3.03) 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 0.117 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.285
Yogurt, n (%)
 < 1 time a week 785/25,354 (3.10) Reference   Reference  
 1–4 times a week 1010/33,129 (3.05) 0.98 (0.90–1.08) 0.742 0.98 (0.89–1.09) 0.735
 ≥ 5 times a week 548/19,184 (2.86) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.142 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.173
Cheese, n (%)
 < 1 time a week 1132/37,567 (3.01) Reference   Reference  
 1–2 times a week 737/23,861 (3.09) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.596 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 0.353
 ≥ 3 times a week 474/16,239 (2.92) 0.97 (0.89–1.08) 0.555 0.98 (0.87–1.10) 0.691
Fermented soybeans, n (%)
 < 1time a week 955/30,609 (3.12) Reference   Reference  
 1–2 times a week 813/27,474 (2.96) 0.95 (0.86–1.04) 0.260 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.443
 ≥ 3 times a week 575/19,584 (2.94) 0.94 (0.85–1.04) 0.242 0.96 (0.86–1.08) 0.525
  1. Note: Adjusted OR was estimated by applying multivariable analyses considering the following confounders; mother age, BMI, smoking history, parity, educational background, household income, and working ≥42 h/week. Their categories were shown in method section