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Table 2 Frequency of miso soup intake and characteristics of confounding factors

From: Fermented foods and preterm birth risk from a prospective large cohort study: the Japan Environment and Children’s study

  Frequency of intake; miso soup  
Almost never 1–3 days a month 1–2 days a week 3–4 days a week 5–6 days a week Every day p value
Age (years), n (%) < .0001
 < 30 1522 3604 7592 8279 4829 4393
(5.04) (11.93) (25.12) (27.4) (15.98) (14.54)
 30–34 1003 2489 6397 7842 5212 4663
(3.63) (9.02) (23.17) (28.41) (18.88) (16.89)
 ≥ 35 671 1631 4217 5523 3837 3872
(3.4) (8.26) (21.35) (27.96) (19.43) (19.6)
BMI (kg/m2) group, n (%) < 0.001
 Leptosome (< 18.5) 492 1237 2927 3492 2430 2180
(3.86) (9.71) (22.97) (27.41) (18.99) (17.11)
 Healthy weight (18.5 to < 25) 2337 5629 13,526 16,142 10,416 9658
(4.05) (9.76) (23.46) (28.00) (17.98) (16.75)
 Obese (≥ 25) 366 857 1742 2000 1104 1087
(5.11) (11.98) (24.34) (27.95) (15.43) (15.19)
Smoking history, n (%) < 0.001
 Yes 1557 3400 7617 8764 5541 4942
(4.89) (10.68) (23.94) (27.54) (17.41) (15.53)
 No 1602 4259 10,458 12,710 8276 7902
(3.54) (9.42) (23.13) (28.12) (18.31) (17.48)
Nulliparity, n (%) < 0.001
 No 1595 3707 9974 12,863 8728 8528
(3.51) (8.17) (21.97) (28.34) (19.23) (18.79)
 Yes 1590 4990 8169 8698 5097 4364
(4.98) (12.5) (25.6) (27.26) (15.97) (13.68)
Educational background, years (%) < 0.001
 < 10 239 509 887 887 524 410
(6.76) (14.4) (25.1) (27.31) (14.83) (11.6)
 10–12 1256 2760 5982 6875 4265 4234
(4.95) (10.88) (23.58) (27.1) (16.81) (16.69)
 13–15 1123 2883 7075 8727 5675 5256
(3.65) (9.38) (23.02) (28.39) (18.46) (17.1)
 ≥ 16 515 1466 4008 4774 3243 2866
(3.05) (8.69) (23.76) (28.3) (19.22) (16.99)
Household income, million Japanese-yen/year (%) < 0.001
 < 2 260 551 997 967 568 561
(6.64) (14.12) (25.54) (24.78) (14.55) (14.37)
 2 to < 4 1149 2730 6003 6898 4235 3814
(4.63) (11.00) (24.18) (27.78) (17.06) (15.36)
 4 to < 6 845 2138 5557 6789 4497 3861
(3.57) (9.03) (22.08) (28.66) (18.99) (16.3)
 6 to < 8 376 1022 2507 3280 2190 1981
(3.31) (9.00) (22.08) (28.88) (19.28) (17.44)
 8 to < 10 150 403 1145 1313 830 853
(3.20) (8.59) (24.39) (27.97) (17.68) (18.17)
 ≥ 10 84 245 645 819 586 658
(2.77) (8.07) (21.24) (26.97) (19.30) (21.67)
Working > 42 h/week (%) < 0.001
 Yes 683 1752 3767 4246 2680 2541
(4.36) (11.18) (24.04) (27.10) (17.10) (16.22)
 No 2513 5972 14,440 17,399 11,198 10,388
(4.06) (9.65) (23.32) (28.10) (18.09) (16.78)
Part-time worker (%) < 0.001
 Yes 506 1389 3017 3437 2103 1931
(4.09) (11.22) (24.36) (27.76) (16.98) (15.59)
 No 3568 6992 15,509 17,108 10,989 10,542
(5.51) (10.81) (23.97) (26.44) (16.98) (16.29)
  1. Note: BMI body mass index before pregnancy