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Table 4 The nutrients intake according to mobile phone (MP) using

From: Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study

  Boys Girls
Non-user (N = 508) User (N = 155) p Non-user (N = 462) User (N = 217) p
Age (average (CI)) 10.33 (10.12–10.55) 12.08 (11.69–12.47) < 0.001 9.99 (9.76–10.23) 12.21 (11.92–12.49) < 0.001
BMI categories (N (%))
 Underweight 28 (5.5%) 10 (6.5%) 0.901 38 (8.2%) 16 (7.3%) 0.211
 Normal weight 363 (71.3%) 110 (71.0%)   356 (76.6%) 178 (82.1%)  
 Overweight 117 (23.2%) 35 (22.6%)   68 (15.3%) 23 (10.6%)  
Physical activity (N (%))
 < 1 h 263 (51.8%) 60 (38.7%) 0.017 320 (69.3%) 103 (47.5%) < 0.001
 1–3 h 202 (39.8%) 79 (51.0%)   128 (27.7%) 92 (42.4%)  
 > 3 h 43 (8.5%) 16 (10.3%)   14 (3.0%) 22 (10.1%)  
Nutrition (average (CI)††)
 Protein (%E) 14.04 (13.70–14.39) 13.92 (13.46–14.38) 0.573 13.96 (13.57–14.34) 13.97 (13.54–14.39) 0.967
 Fat (%E) 27.56 (26.77–28.35) 27.87 (26.83–28.92) 0.537 28.62 (27.75–29.49) 29.13 (28.17–30.10) 0.267
 Carbohydrate (%E) 56.82 (55.83–57.80) 56.64 (55.33–57.94) 0.774 56.02 (54.95–57.09) 55.53 (54.34–56.71) 0.389
 Saturated fatty acids (%E) 9.00 (8.67–9.33) 9.30 (8.86–9.74) 0.148 9.35 (8.97–9.72) 9.56 (9.14–9.97) 0.293
 n-3 fatty acids (%E) 1.04 (0.99–1.08) 1.01 (0.95–1.06) 0.265 1.08 (1.03–1.12) 1.10 (1.05–1.15) 0.363
 n-6 fatty acids (%E) 4.86 (4.70–5.02) 4.81 (4.60–5.02) 0.590 5.10 (4.92–5.28) 5.14 (4.94–5.35) 0.635
 Sodium (mg/1000 kcal) 2230.79 (2156.53–2305.05) 2218.11 (2119.69–2316.53) 0.789 2343.66 (2257.26–2430.05) 2357.79 (2261.95–2453.62) 0.759
 Potassium (mg/1000 kcal) 1210.70 (1169.07–1252.33) 1180.08 (1124.92–1235.25) 0.249 1224.07 (1179.51–1268.63) 1213.28 (1163.86–1262.71) 0.649
 Calcium (mg/1000 kcal) 353.47 (336.41–370.52) 356.25 (333.65–378.86) 0.798 358.14 (341.52–374.77) 360.83 (342.39–379.27) 0.761
 Iron (mg/1000 kcal) 3.62 (3.51–3.73) 3.56 (3.41–3.70) 0.378 3.73 (3.61–3.86) 3.75 (3.61–3.89) 0.805
 Vitamin D (μg/1000 kcal) 5.11 (4.69–5.54) 5.02 (4.46–5.58) 0.728 5.02 (4.55–5.50) 5.56 (5.03–6.09) 0.034
 Vitamin K (μg/1000 kcal) 117.76 (109.90–125.62) 106.65 (96.23–117.06) 0.027 110.77 (101.51–120.02) 113.92 (103.66–124.18) 0.522
 Vitamin B-1 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 0.40 (0.39–0.42) 0.621 0.40 (0.39–0.42) 0.40 (0.39–0.42) 0.757
 Vitamin B-2 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.72 (0.69–0.74) 0.71 (0.68–0.75) 0.774 0.72 (0.69–0.75) 0.72 (0.69–0.75) 0.742
 Folic acid (μg/1000 kcal) 148.54 (141.84–155.25) 143.24 (134.35–152.13) 0.215 152.77 (145.31–160.23) 149.59 (141.31–157.86) 0.422
 Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 52.52 (49.18–55.86) 51.49 (47.06–55.91) 0.628 55.60 (51.84–59.36) 55.13 (50.95–59.30) 0.813
 Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal) 164.64 (156.55–172.72) 168.48 (157.77–179.20) 0.456 174.07 (164.03–184.11) 178.87 (167.74–190.00) 0.369
 Total dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 5.60 (5.40–5.79) 5.48 (5.22–5.74) 0.336 5.67 (5.44–5.89) 5.66 (5.41–5.91) 0.976
  1. χ2 tests for categorical variables and analysis of covariances (ANCOVA) for continuous variables, adjusting for age, BMI, and physical activity
  2. ††Adjusted mean and standard errors calculated by ANCOVA