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Table 3 The nutrients intake according to personal computer (PC) using

From: Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study

  Boys Girls
Non-user (N = 440) User (N = 224) p Non-user (N = 452) User (N = 228) p
Age (average (CI)) 10.26 (10.02–10.51) 11.67 (11.35–11.99) < 0.001 10.05 (9.80–10.29) 11.97 (11.69–12.25) < 0.001
BMI categories (N (%))
 Underweight 27 (6.1%) 11 (4.9%) 0.004 35 (7.7%) 19 (8.3%) 0.024
 Normal weight 329 (74.6%) 144 (64.3%)   345 (76.0%) 190 (83.0%)  
 Overweight 84 (19.3%) 69 (30.8%)   72 (16.3%) 19 (8.7%)  
Physical activity (N (%))
 < 1 h 228 (51.8%) 93 (41.5%) 0.039 310 (68.6%) 114 (50.0%) < 0.001
 1–3 h 177 (40.2%) 107 (47.8%)   122 (27.0%) 97 (42.5%)  
 > 3 h 35 (8.0%) 24 (10.7%)   20 (4.4%) 17 (7.5%)  
Nutrition (average (CI)††)
 Protein (%E) 14.09 (13.74–14.45) 13.84 (13.44–14.25) 0.206 14.05 (13.68–14.42) 13.97 (13.55–14.40) 0.702
 Fat (%E) 27.67 (26.86–28.49) 27.50 (26.57–28.42) 0.696 28.75 (27.91–29.59) 29.14 (28.18–30.11) 0.376
 Carbohydrate (%E) 56.66 (55.64–57.68) 57.07 (55.92–58.23) 0.461 55.81 (54.77–56.85) 55.47 (54.28–56.66) 0.537
 Saturated fatty acids (%E) 9.07 (8.72–9.41) 9.07 (8.68–9.46) 0.997 9.36 (9.00–9.72) 9.60 (9.19–10.02) 0.205
 n-3 fatty acids (%E) 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 1.01 (0.96–1.06) 0.189 1.09 (1.04–1.13) 1.10 (1.05–1.16) 0.514
 n-6 fatty acids (%E) 4.89 (4.72–5.05) 4.77 (4.59–4.96) 0.212 5.15 (4.97–5.32) 5.11 (4.91–5.31) 0.691
 Sodium (mg/1000 kcal) 2249.19 (2172.49–2325.89) 2195.30 (2108.20–2282.40) 0.203 2350.55 (2267.11–2433.99) 2348.09 (2252.22–2443.95) 0.956
 Potassium (mg/1000 kcal) 1218.94 (1175.90–1261.98) 1173.58 (1124.70–1222.46) 0.056 1229.86 (1186.70–1273.02) 1214.39 (1164.80–1263.98) 0.501
 Calcium (mg/1000 kcal) 357.02 (339.36–374.68) 348.61 (328.56–368.66) 0.388 359.23 (343.16–375.30) 360.91 (342.44–379.37) 0.845
 Iron (mg/1000 kcal) 3.65 (3.53–3.76) 3.53 (3.40–3.66) 0.060 3.77 (3.65–3.89) 3.74 (3.60–3.88) 0.658
 Vitamin D (μg/1000 kcal) 5.02 (4.58–5.46) 5.19 (4.69–5.69) 0.479 5.15 (4.69–5.61) 5.43 (4.90–5.96) 0.253
 Vitamin K (μg/1000 kcal) 118.36 (110.22–126.49) 108.52 (99.29–117.76) 0.029 115.79 (106.72–124.86) 114.55 (104.12–124.97) 0.797
 Vitamin B-1 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 0.40 (0.39–0.42) 0.355 0.41 (0.39–0.42) 0.40 (0.38–0.41) 0.197
 Vitamin B-2 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.72 (0.69–0.75) 0.70 (0.67–0.74) 0.284 0.72 (0.70–0.75) 0.72 (0.69–0.75) 0.873
 Folic acid (μg/1000 kcal) 149.92 (142.99–156.85) 142.32 (134.46–150.19) 0.047 153.37 (146.15–160.60) 150.46 (142.16–158.76) 0.449
 Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 53.08 (49.63–56.53) 50.85 (46.93–54.77) 0.241 55.74 (52.09–59.38) 54.61 (50.42–58.80) 0.561
 Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal) 164.83 (156.41–173.24) 165.98 (156.42–175.54) 0.804 175.17 (165.44–184.89) 179.43 (168.26–190.60) 0.410
 Total dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 5.62 (5.42–5.82) 5.47 (5.24–5.70) 0.181 5.69 (5.48–5.91) 5.67 (5.42–5.92) 0.855
  1. χ2 tests for categorical variables and analysis of covariances for continuous variables, adjusting for age, BMI, and physical activity
  2. ††Adjusted mean and standard errors calculated by ANCOVA