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Table 2 The nutrients intake according to television (TV) viewing time

From: Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study

  Boys Girls
< 2 h (N = 390) > 2 h (N = 274) p < 2 h (N = 387) > 2 h (N = 295) p
Age (average (CI)) 10.64 (10.37–10.90) 10.86 (5.90–15.82) < 0.001 10.42 (10.13–10.71) 11.06 (10.80–11.31) < 0.001
BMI categories (N (%))
 Underweight 27 (6.9%) 11 (4.0%) 0.008 33 (8.5%) 22 (7.4%) 0.113
 Normal weight 289 (74.1%) 186 (67.6%)   311 (80.2%) 225 (75.8%)  
 Overweight 74 (19.0%) 77 (28.4%)   43 (11.3%) 48 (16.8%)  
Physical activity (N (%))
 < 1 h 190 (48.7%) 131 (47.8%) 0.085 256 (66.1%) 168 (56.9%) 0.049
 1–3 h 158 (40.5%) 126 (46.0%)   112 (28.9%) 109 (36.9%)  
 > 3 h 42 (10.8%) 17 (6.2%)   19 (4.9%) 18 (6.1%)  
Nutrition (average (CI)††)
 Protein (%E) 14.20 (13.86–14.55) 13.69 (13.30–14.09) 0.005 14.20 (13.82–14.58) 13.81 (13.43–14.20) 0.027
 Fat (%E) 27.71 (26.91–28.52) 27.46 (26.55–28.38) 0.550 28.70 (27.83–29.56) 29.07 (28.18–29.95) 0.358
 Carbohydrate (%E) 56.51 (55.50–57.51) 57.27 (56.13–58.41) 0.146 55.67 (54.60–56.73) 55.75 (54.66–56.84) 0.868
 Saturated fatty acids (%E) 9.06 (8.73–9.40) 9.05 (8.67–9.43) 0.940 9.48 (9.11–9.85) 9.38 (9.00–9.76) 0.564
 n-3 fatty acids (%E) 1.04 (1.00–1.09) 1.01 (0.96–1.06) 0.206 1.08 (1.03–1.13) 1.10 (1.05–1.15) 0.328
 n-6 fatty acids (%E) 4.89 (4.72–5.05) 4.79 (4.61–4.98) 0.265 5.05 (4.87–5.23) 5.23 (5.05–5.42) 0.028
 Sodium (mg/1000 kcal) 2249.64 (2174.33–2324.95) 2199.62 (2114.20–2285.04) 0.203 2379.62 (2294.17–2465.08) 2307.88 (2220.69–2395.07) 0.071
 Potassium (mg/1000 kcal) 1218.28 (1176.04–1260.53) 1177.53 (1129.61–1225.44) 0.064 1238.57 (1194.36–1282.78) 1208.09 (1162.99–1253.20) 0.137
 Calcium (mg/1000 kcal) 363.39 (346.14–380.65) 338.28 (318.71–357.85) 0.005 375.46 (359.21–391.72) 341.20 (324.61–357.78) < 0.001
 Iron (mg/1000 kcal) 3.65 (3.54–3.76) 3.53 (3.41–3.66) 0.034 3.79 (3.66–3.91) 3.73 (3.60–3.86) 0.307
 Vitamin D (μg/1000 kcal) 5.18 (4.74–5.61) 4.94 (4.44–5.43) 0.286 5.41 (4.94–5.89) 5.03 (4.54–5.51) 0.079
 Vitamin K (μg/1000 kcal) 118.66 (110.67–126.64) 108.78 (99.72–117.83) 0.018 117.10 (107.79–126.41) 114.01 (104.51–123.50) 0.473
 Vitamin B-1 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.41 (0.40–0.42) 0.40 (0.39–0.41) 0.123 0.41 (0.39–0.42) 0.40 (0.39–0.41) 0.285
 Vitamin B-2 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.73 (0.70–0.75) 0.70 (0.67–0.73) 0.050 0.74 (0.71–0.76) 0.71 (0.68–0.74) 0.032
 Folic acid (μg/1000 kcal) 149.39 (142.58–156.20) 143.56 (135.83–151.28) 0.101 153.11 (145.69–160.52) 152.00 (144.44–159.57) 0.749
 Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 52.52 (49.12–55.92) 51.90 (48.04–55.76) 0.725 54.68 (50.95–58.42) 56.32 (52.50–60.13) 0.346
 Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal) 168.10 (159.83–176.37) 161.09 (151.71–170.47) 0.104 175.68 (165.70–185.65) 177.43 (167.25–187.61) 0.705
 Total dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 5.64 (5.44–5.84) 5.46 (5.24–5.69) 0.082 5.72 (5.50–5.95) 5.65 (5.43–5.88) 0.499
  1. χ2 tests for categorical variables and analysis of covariances for continuous variables, adjusting for age, BMI, and physical activity
  2. ††Adjusted mean and standard errors calculated by ANCOVA