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Table 1 The characteristics of the studied population

From: Relationship between screen time and nutrient intake in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional observational study

  Boys Girls p
Number (N (%)) 679 (49.4%) 695 (50.6%)  
Age (average (SD)) 10.72 (2.61) 10.69 (2.65) 0.843
Body mass index (BMI) categories (N (%))
 Underweight 39 (5.7%) 55 (7.9%) < 0.001
 Normal weight 484 (71.3%) 545 (78.4%)  
 Overweight 156 (23.0%) 95 (13.7%)  
Physical activity (N (%))
 < 1 h 324 (48.5%) 424 (62.2%) < 0.001
 1–3 h 284 (42.5%) 221 (32.4%)  
 > 3 h 60 (9.0%) 37 (5.4%)  
Television (TV) viewing time (N (%))
 < 2 h 390 (58.6%) 388 (56.6%) 0.456
 > 2 h 275 (41.4%) 297 (43.4%)  
Personal computer (PC) using (N (%))
 Non-user 441 (66.3%) 454 (66.4%) 0.982
 User 224 (33.7%) 230 (33.6%)  
Mobile phone (MP) using (N (%))
 Non-user 509 (76.7%) 465 (68.1%) < 0.001
 User 155 (23.3%) 218 (31.9%)  
Nutrients intake (average (SD))
 Energy (kcal) 1953.04 (669.45) 1676.75 (568.94) < 0.001
 Protein (%E) 13.95 (2.31) 14.22 (2.28) 0.027
 Fat (%E) 27.82 (5.30) 29.10 (5.13) < 0.001
 Carbohydrate (%E) 56.61 (6.57) 55.30 (6.32) < 0.001
 Saturated fatty acids (%E) 9.17 (2.20) 9.55 (2.22) 0.002
 n-3 fatty acids (%E) 1.03 (0.29) 1.07 (0.29) 0.010
 n-6 fatty acids (%E) 4.88 (1.15) 5.14 (1.08) < 0.001
 Sodium (mg/1000 kcal) 2279.26 (537.76) 2418.16 (541.57) < 0.001
 Potassium (mg/1000 kcal) 1171.14 (276.87) 1237.82 (267.08) < 0.001
 Calcium (mg/1000 kcal) 353.40 (113.29) 363.69 (97.47) 0.071
 Iron (mg/1000 kcal) 3.54 (0.73) 3.81 (0.73) < 0.001
 Vitamin D (μg/1000 kcal) 5.01 (2.90) 5.08 (2.87) 0.674
 Vitamin K (μg/1000 kcal) 106.18 (52.75) 115.91 (55.07) 0.001
 Vitamin B-1 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.40 (0.07) 0.41 (0.08) 0.016
 Vitamin B-2 (mg/1000 kcal) 0.70 (0.19) 0.73 (0.16) 0.003
 Folic acid (μg/1000 kcal) 141.11 (44.77) 154.88 (44.64) < 0.001
 Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 49.85 (22.18) 55.24 (22.78) < 0.001
 Cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal) 165.89 (54.26) 181.55 (61.06) < 0.001
 Total dietary fiber (g/1000 kcal) 5.33 (1.34) 5.77 (1.32) < 0.001
  1. t tests for continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables