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Table 2 The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for assessing the methodology quality of cohort studies

From: Association of prenatal and childhood environment smoking exposure with puberty timing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Selection Comparability Outcome Scorea
Representativeness of the exposed cohort Selection of control Ascertainment of exposure Demonstration that outcome of interest was not present at start of study Comparability of cohorts on the basis of the design or analysis Assessment of outcome Was followed up long enough for outcomes to occur Adequacy of follow-up of cohorts Number of loss/n
Håkonsen 2012 [29] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 2906/5716 8
Ernst 2012 [30] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 Not mentioned 8
Windham 2008 [31] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Not mentioned 6
Ferris 2010 [32] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 466/841 8
Behie 2015 [34] 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 953/2446 7
Windham 2004 [35] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 9/1003 9
Tehrani 2014 [36] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 Not mentioned 6
Rubin 2009 [37] 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 413/2940 8
Shrestha 2011 [23] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 2248/5427 8
Maisonet 2010 [38] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1104/5842 7
Fried 2001 [39] 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 38/190 6
Wang 2012 [40] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 281/856 6
Flom 2017 [41] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 180/1314 7
Dossus 2012 [42] 1 1 1 0 2 1 1 1 NAb 8
Hart 2009 [43] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1068/2868 6
Morris 2010 [44] 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 NA 7
D’Aloisio 2013 [45] 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 NA 7
Ravnborg 2011 [46] 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 NA 6
Carter 2014 [47] 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0/265 6
Liu 2010 [48] 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 16/810 7
  1. aLow-quality research, scored 0–3; moderate quality research, scored 4–6; high-quality research, scored 7–9
  2. bLoss of retrospective cohort is not available