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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Association of prenatal and childhood environment smoking exposure with puberty timing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Gender Age at baseline/age at follow-up surveys End of follow-up Sample sizea (expose/controlb) Exposure typec PTS exposure level Primary outcomes Cohort category
Håkonsen 2013 [29] Denmark Boys Prenatal/18–21 years old 18–21 years old 858/1387 PTS Past smokerd
1–9 cigs/day
10–14 cigs/day
≥ 15 cigs/day
Age at acne
Age at voice break
Age at regular shaving
Age at first nocturnal emission
Prospective
Ernst 2012 [30] Denmark Girls Prenatal/19–21 years old Onset of menarche 129/220 PTS 1–9 cigs/day
≥ 10 cigs/day
Age at menarche Prospective
Windham 2008 [31] USA Girls Prenatal/
(1) up to 7 or 8 years old
(2) 20s or 27–33 years
Onset of menarche 832/722 PTS and ETS < 10 cigs/day
10–19 cigs /day
≥ 20 cigs/day
Age at menarche Prospective
Ferris 2010 [32]
Terry 2009 [33]
USA Girls Prenatal/
(1) up to 7 years old
(2) 38–46 years old
Onset of menarche C1: 98/150
C2: 90/61
C3: 95/61
PTS and ETS 1–9 cigs/day
10–19 cigs/day
≥ 20 cigs/day
No. of girls with early menarchee Prospective
Behie 2015 [34] Australia Girls Prenatal/
12–13 years old
12–13 years old 222/1271 PTS Smoking most days;
smoking occasionally
Age at menarche
No. of girls reached menarche
Prospective
Windham 2004 [35] USA Girls Prenatal/
(1) 5 years old
(2) 9–11 years old
(3) 15–17 years old
16 or 17 years old C1: 508/214,
C2: 162/214,
C3: 417/214
PTS and ETS 1–9 cigs/day
10–19 cigs/day
≥ 20 cigs/day
No. of girls with early menarchef Prospective
Tehrani 2014 [36] Iran Girls Prenatal/
evaluated once every 3 years
Onset of menarche 34/367 ETS Not mentioned Age at menarche Prospective
Rubin 2009 [37] UK Girls Prenatal/evaluated once yearly from 8 to 11 years 11 years old 368/2159 PTS Not mentioned No. of girls with early menarcheg Prospective
Shrestha 2011 [23] Denmark Girls Prenatal/(1) 15–18 years old
(2) 18–21 years old
Onset of menarche 656/970 PTS and ETS Stop smoking sometimes during pregnancy;
1–9 cigs/day;
≥ 10 cigs/day
Age at menarche Prospective
Maisonet 2010 [38] UK Girls Prenatal/8–14 years old Onset of menarche 647/2657 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche
Age at breast development stage ≥ 2 and ≥ 3
Age at pubic hair development stage≥2 and ≥ 3
Prospective
Fried 2001 [39] Canada Boys and girls Prenatal/evaluated once yearly up to 8 years, thereafter, every 3 years 13–16 years old Not mentioned PTS Up to 16 mg nicotine/day;
≥ 16 mg nicotine/day
Age at menarche
Age at breast began to develop
Age at start shaving
Age at voice break
Prospective
Wang 2012 [40] USA Girls Prenatal/evaluated once yearly from 10 to 15 years old Onset of menarche 21/284 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche
Age of breast developmentstage1 or 2 and 3
Age of pubic hair developmentstage1 or 2 and 3
Prospective
Flom 2017 [41] USA Girls Prenatal/ infancy, early childhood and adulthood Onset of menarche 647/443 PTS Not mentioned No. of girls with early menarchef Prospective
Dossus 2012 [42] France Girls 40–65 years old/
Prenatal
802/75,171 PTS and ETS Not mentioned Age at menarche Retrospective
Hart 2009 [43] Australia Girls Prenatal/2, 6, 8, 10, 13/14, and 16/17 years old Onset of menarche 47/184 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche
No. of girls with breast development stage3
No. of girls with pubic hairdevelopmentstage2/3
Prospective
Morris 2010 [44] UK Girls 16–30 years old/prenatal 630/5710 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche Retrospective
D’Aloisio 2013 [45] USA Girls Not mentioned/prenatal 11,029/21,067 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche Retrospective
Ravnborg 2011 [46] Denmark Boys Not mentioned/prenatal PTS:1385/2101
ETS:769/1332
PTS and ETS Not mentioned No. of boys with early voice break
No. of boys with early growth of penis
No. of boys with early pubic hair development
Retrospective
Carter 2014 [47] USA Girls Prenatal/14 years old 14 years old 168/97 PTS Not mentioned Age at menarche Prospective
Liu 2010 [48] USA Girls Prenatal/1,4,7,18 years old Onset of menarche 486/308 PTS 1–19 cigs/day
≥ 20 cigs/day
No. of girls with early menarcheh Prospective
  1. aPTS prenatal tobacco smoke, ETS childhood environment tobacco smoke. C1 PTS/control, C2 ETS/control, C3 both PTS and ETS/control
  2. bControl group: non-smoker group
  3. cExposure type included 3 types:(1) PTS, (2) ETS, (3) both PTS and ETS
  4. dPast smoker, included women who smoked before pregnancy or stopped sometime before 36th gestational week
  5. eEarly puberty occurred was defined according to age at menarche, ≤ 12 years for early menarche
  6. fEarly puberty occurred was defined according to age at menarche, < 12 years for early menarche
  7. gEarly puberty occurred was defined according to age at menarche, ≤ 11 years for early menarche
  8. hEarly puberty occurred was defined according to age at menarche, < 11 years for early menarche