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Table 1 Case characteristics

From: Cumulative risk effect of household dysfunction for child maltreatment after intensive intervention of the child protection system in Japan: a longitudinal analysis

  n (%)
Total (N) 759
Child characteristics
 Age
  Mean 10.6 (SD 4.0)  
 Age group (years)
  1–5 106 (14.0)
  6–12 348 (45.8)
  13–17 305 (40.2)
 Sex
  Male 404 (53.2)
  Female 355 (46.8)
 Vulnerability
  Behavior problems 386 (50.9)
Family characteristics
 Ethnicity
  Non-Japanese 57 (7.5)
 Caregiver divorce 638 (84.1)
 Parents
  Biological 153 (20.2)
  Step 108 (14.2)
  Single 446 (58.8)
  Other 45 (5.9)
  Unknown 7 (0.9)
 Number of siblings
  0 224 (29.5)
  1–2 410 (54.0)
  3 or more 125 (16.5)
 Economic status
  Receiving public assistance 234 (30.8)
CGC case characteristics
 Amount of prior investigations
  0 250 (32.9)
  1 151 (19.9)
  2–3 183 (24.1)
  4 or more 175 (23.1)
 Reason for placement
  Child abuse 367 (48.4)
   Physical abuse 197 (26.0)
   Emotional abuse 116 (15.3)
   Sexual abuse 26 (3.4)
   Neglect 138 (18.2)
  Parenting problem 217 (28.6)
  Delinquency 111 (14.6)
  Other 64 (8.4)
Post-temporary-custody service
 Out-of-home 239 (31.5)
Household dysfunction
 Interparental violence 354 (46.6)
 Mental health problem 330 (43.5)
 Substance abuse 171 (22.5)
Child’s history of maltreatment
 Physical abuse 436 (57.4)
 Emotional abuse 541 (71.3)
 Sexual abuse 77 (10.1)
 Neglect 480 (63.2)
 Any maltreatment 670 (88.3)
HD score
 0 226 (29.8)
 1 274 (36.1)
 2 196 (25.8)
 3 63 (8.3)
MTM score
 0 97 (12.8)
 1 141 (18.6)
 2 239 (31.5)
 3 282 (37.2)
HD + MTM score
 0 49 (6.5)
 1 79 (10.4)
 2 134 (17.7)
 3 197 (26.0)
 4 151 (19.9)
 5 116 (15.3)
 6 33 (4.3)
  1. CGC child guidance center (out-of-home, therapeutic institutions, or foster parents), HD household dysfunction (sum of each of the three individual categories of interparental violence, parental substance abuse, and mental health problem), MTM multi-type maltreatment (number of types of maltreatment, i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect)