Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between individual pesticide and diabetes

From: Association between diabetes and pesticides: a case-control study among Thai farmers

Exposed Case n (%) Control n (%) OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR* (95%CI)
Organochlorine insecticides
 Aldrin Yes 7 (1.5) 11 (2.0) 0.77 (0.30–1.99) 0.79 (0.28–2.23)
  No 445 (98.5) 536 (98.0)   
 Chlordane Yes 12 (2.7) 12 (2.2) 1.22 (0.54–2.75) 1.35 (0.56–3.24)
  No 439 (97.3) 536 (97.8)   
 Dieldrin Yes 6 (1.3) 11 (2.0) 0.65 (0.24–1.78) 0.67 (0.22–2.02)
  No 447 (98.7) 536 (98.0)   
 DDT Yes 32 (7.1) 48 (8.8) 0.79 (0.50–1.26) 0.83 (0.50–1.37)
  No 420 (92.9) 500 (91.2)   
 Endosulfan Yes 112 (24.6) 105 (19.1) 1.38 (1.02–1.87)** 1.40 (1.01–1.95)**
  No 343 (75.4) 444 (80.9)   
 Heptachlor Yes 9 (2.0) 13 (2.4) 0.83 (0.35–1.97) 1.13 (0.46–2.80)
  No 444 (98.0) 535 (97.6)   
Organophosphate insecticides
 Chlorpyrifos Yes 76 (16.8) 78 (14.3) 1.21 (0.86–1.71) 1.20 (0.83–1.75)
  No 376 (83.2) 468 (85.7)   
 Dicrotophos Yes 18 (4.0) 13 (2.4) 1.70 (0.82–3.51) 2.12 (0.97–4.61)
  No 436 (96.0) 535 (97.6)   
 Dichlorvos Yes 10 (2.2) 12 (2.2) 1.01 (0.43–2.36) 1.03 (0.41–2.62)
  No 442 (97.8) 536 (97.8)   
 EPN (ethyl-p-nitrophenyl) Yes 50 (11.0) 52 (9.5) 1.19 (0.79–1.79) 1.29 (0.83–2.02)
No 403 (89.0) 497 (90.5)   
 Folidol/parathion Yes 105 (23.2) 135 (24.5) 0.93 (0.70–1.25) 0.83 (0.60–1.15)
  No 348 (76.8) 417 (75.5)   
 Methamidophos/Tamaron Yes 43 (9.5) 49 (9.0) 1.07 (0.69–1.64) 1.04 (0.65–1.65)
No 409 (90.5) 497 (91.0)   
 Mevinphos Yes 26 (5.7) 20 (3.6) 1.61 (0.89–2.92) 2.22 (1.17–4.19)**
  No 427 (94.3) 528 (96.4)   
 Monocrotophos Yes 26 (5.8) 26 (4.7) 1.23 (0.70–2.15) 1.29 (0.72–2.32)
  No 426 (94.2) 523 (95.3)   
Carbamate insecticides
 Carbaryl/Sevin Yes 81 (17.8) 70 (12.8) 1.48 (1.05–2.10)** 1.50 (1.02–2.19)**
  No 373 (82.2) 478 (87.2)   
 Carbofuran/Furadan Yes 112 (24.7) 129 (23.5) 1.07 (0.80–1.43) 1.23 (0.90–1.70)
No 342 (75.3) 421 (76.5)   
 Carbosulfan Yes 54 (11.9) 50 (9.1) 1.35 (0.90–2.03) 1.44 (0.94–1.12)
  No 398 (88.1) 498 (90.9)   
 Methomyl Yes 89 (19.6) 85 (15.5) 1.33 (0.96–1.84) 1.23 (0.86–1.76)
  No 365 (80.4) 462 (84.5)   
Pyrethoid insecticides
 Abamectin Yes 220 (48.6) 290 (52.4) 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.79 (0.60–1.04)
  No 233 (51.4) 263 (47.6)   
 Permethrin/Ambush Yes 15 (3.3) 15 (2.7) 1.23 (0.59–2.53) 1.39 (0.64–3.04)
No 435 (96.7) 533 (97.3)   
Herbicides
 2,4-D Yes 147 (32.1) 167 (30.1) 1.10 (0.84–1.44) 1.04 (0.78–1.39)
  No 311 (67.9) 388 (69.9)   
 Alachlor Yes 44 (9.7) 57 (10.4) 0.93 (0.61–1.40) 0.94 (0.59–1.47)
  No 409 (90.3) 490 (89.6)   
 Butachlor Yes 115 (25.1) 130 (23.7) 1.08 (0.81–1.44) 1.14 (0.83–1.56)
  No 344 (74.9) 418 (76.3)   
 Glyphosate Yes 65 (13.8) 88 (15.8) 1.17 (0.83–1.65) 1.08 (0.72–1.61)
  No 405 (86.2) 470 (84.2)   
 Paraquat/Gramoxone Yes 115 (24.8) 161 (29.0) 1.23 (0.93–1.63) 1.31 (0.97–1.79)
No 348 (75.2) 395 (71.0)   
 Propanil Yes 94 (20.6) 129 (23.5) 0.85 (0.63–1.15) 0.81 (0.58–1.13)
  No 362 (79.4) 421 (76.5)   
Fungicides
 Benlate Yes 24 (5.4) 16 (2.9) 1.88 (0.99–3.58) 2.08 (1.03–4.20)**
  No 424 (94.6) 531 (97.1)   
 Bordeaux mixture Yes 6 (1.3) 11 (2.0) 0.66 (0.24–1.80) 0.81 (0.29–2.29)
  No 444 (98.7) 538 (98.0)   
 Carbendazim Yes 45 (10.0) 49 (9.0) 1.13 (0.74–1.73) 1.17 (0.74–1.86)
  No 405 (90.0) 498 (91.0)   
 Copper sulfate Yes 14 (3.2) 15 (2.8) 1.15 (0.55–2.40) 1.16 (0.51–2.63)
  No 428 (96.8) 525 (97.2)   
 Mancozeb Yes 31 (6.9) 39 (7.1) 0.96 (0.59–1.57) 1.09 (0.65–1.84)
  No 421 (93.1) 510 (92.9)   
 Maneb Yes 11 (2.5) 15 (2.7) 0.89 (0.41–1.97) 1.03 (0.44–2.41)
  No 437 (97.5) 533 (97.3)   
 Metalaxyl Yes 39 (8.6) 40 (7.3) 1.20 (0.76–1.91) 1.32 (0.80–2.17)
  No 413 (91.4) 510 (92.7)   
 Thiophanate-methyl Yes 13 (2.9) 13 (2.4) 1.23 (0.56–2.68) 1.37 (0.60–3.14)
No 435 (97.1) 534 (97.6)   
 Zineb Yes 16 (3.6) 9 (1.6) 2.22 (0.97–5.06) 2.23 (0.89–5.57)
  1. *Adjusted for gender, age (continuous), BMI (continuous), cigarette smoking (packs/year), alcohol consumption (glasses/week), family history of diabetes (yes, no), and occupation (farmer, non-farmer, other)
  2. **Statistically significant (P < 0.05)