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Table 2 Associations between different types of pesticides and diabetes

From: Association between diabetes and pesticides: a case-control study among Thai farmers

  Case Control OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR* (95%CI)
Exposed n % Exposed n %
Pesticides (any) (N = 1867) 468 54.5 556 55.1 0.98 (0.81–1.17) 0.94 (0.75–1.17)
Insecticides (any) (N = 1876) 433 50.2 500 49.4 1.03 (0.86–1.24) 1.04 (0.84–1.29)
Number of years using the insecticides (N = 933)
 1–5 50 11.6 53 10.6 Referent Referent
 6–10 82 18.9 102 20.4 0.85 (0.53–1.38) 0.83 (0.49–1.41)
 11–20 99 22.9 126 25.2 0.83 (0.52–1.33) 0.67 (0.40–1.12)
 21–30 105 24.3 110 22.0 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 1.01 (0.61–1.68)
 > 30 97 22.4 109 21.8 0.94 (0.59–1.51) 0.80 (0.47–1.34)
P for trend***      0.78 0.80
Number of days using insecticides (quartile) (N = 920)
 Quartile1 119 27.5 128 25.6 Referent Referent
 Quartile2 99 22.9 116 23.2 0.92 (0.64–1.32) 1.02 (0.68–1.51)
 Quartile3 113 26.1 130 26.0 0.94 (0.66–1.33) 0.83 (0.56–1.23)
 Quartile4 97 22.4 118 23.6 0.88 (0.61–1.28) 0.86 (0.58–1.28)
P for trend      0.12 0.18
Fungicides (any) (N = 1881) 336 38.9 387 38.0 1.04 (0.86–1.25) 1.00 (0.80–1.24)
Number of years using the fungicides (N = 723)
 1–5 46 13.7 55 14.2 Referent Referent
 6–10 65 19.4 88 22.7 0.88 (0.53–1.47) 0.87 (0.50–1.51)
 11–20 83 24.7 105 27.1 0.95 (0.58–1.54) 0.93 (0.55–1.58)
 21–30 80 23.8 69 17.8 1.39 (0.84–2.30) 1.55 (0.90–2.69)
 > 30 62 18.5 70 18.1 1.06 (0.63–1.78) 1.03 (0.58–1.82)
P for trend      0.37 0.46
Number of days using fungicides (quartile) (N = 672)
 Quartile1 96 28.6 117 30.2 Referent Referent
 Quartile2 83 24.7 93 24.0 1.09 (0.73–1.62) 1.06 (0.69–1.64)
 Quartile3 72 21.4 70 18.1 1.25 (0.82–1.92) 1.13 (0.70–1.80)
 Quartile4 62 18.5 79 20.4 0.96 (0.62–1.47) 1.02 (0.64–1.62)
P for trend      0.96 0.71
Herbicides (any) (N = 1882) 418 48.4 491 48.2 1.01 (0.84–1.21) 1.13 (0.76–1.67)
Number of years using the herbicides (N = 909)
 1–5 55 13.2 56 11.4 Referent Referent
 6–10 83 19.9 118 24.0 0.72 (0.45–1.14) 0.60 (0.36–0.99)**
 11–20 102 24.4 113 23.0 0.92 (0.58–1.45) 0.74 (0.45–1.22)
 21–30 99 23.7 104 21.2 0.97 (0.61–1.54) 0.84 (0.51–1.38)
 > 30 79 18.9 100 20.4 0.80(0.50–1.29) 0.63(0.37–1.06)
P for trend      0.78 0.48
Number of days using herbicides (quartile) (N = 844)
 Quartile1 124 29.7 142 28.9 Referent Referent
 Quartile2 76 18.2 87 17.7 1.00 (0.68–1.48) 0.90 (0.59–1.37)
 Quartile3 96 23.0 109 22.2 0.99 (0.69–1.43) 0.93 (0.62–1.38)
 Quartile4 92 22.0 118 24.0 0.91 (0.64–1.30) 0.84 (0.57–1.26)
P for trend      0.17 0.13
Rodenticides (any) (N = 1886) 227 26.3 223 21.8 1.28 (1.04–1.58) 1.35 (1.04–1.76)**
Number of years using the rodenticides (N = 450)
 1–5 79 34.8 64 28.7 Referent Referent
 6–10 60 26.4 63 28.3 0.77 (0.48–1.25) 0.81 (0.48–1.37)
 11–20 45 19.8 43 19.3 0.85 (0.50–1.44) 1.03 (0.57–1.84)
 21–30 19 8.4 24 10.8 0.64 (0.32–1.27) 0.87 (0.40–1.88)
 > 30 24 10.6 29 13.0 0.67 (0.36–1.26) 0.83 (0.42–1.66)
P for trend      0.08 0.44
Number of days using rodenticides (quartile) (N = 425)
 Quartile1 65 28.6 53 23.8 Referent Referent
 Quartile2 68 30.0 56 25.1 0.99 (0.60–1.64) 1.05 (0.61–1.83)
 Quartile3 37 16.3 52 23.3 0.58 (0.33–1.01) 0.75 (0.41–1.38)
 Quartile4 46 20.3 48 22.0 0.78 (0.45–1.35) 1.09 (0.60–1.99)
P for trend      0.31 0.98
Molluscicides (any) (N = 1879) 243 28.2 255 25.1 1.17 (0.95–1.44) 1.26 (0.96–1.64)
Number of years using the molluscicides (N = 498)
 1–5 76 31.3 71 27.8 Referent Referent
 6–10 70 28.8 74 29.0 0.88 (0.56–1.40) 0.91 (0.55–1.51)
 11–20 50 20.6 63 24.7 0.74 (0.45–1.21) 0.81 (0.47–1.39)
 21–30 23 9.0 26 10.2 0.83 (0.43–1.58) 0.88 (0.43–1.80)
 > 30 24 9.9 21 8.2 1.07 (0.55–2.09) 1.20 (0.58–2.48)
P for trend      0.70 0.39
Number of days using molluscicides (quartile) (N = 471)
 Quartile1 94 38.7 80 31.4 Referent Referent
 Quartile2 37 15.2 34 13.3 0.93 (0.53–1.61) 1.00 (0.54–1.83)
 Quartile3 62 25.5 72 28.2 0.73 (0.47–1.15) 0.76 (0.47–1.25)
 Quartile4 38 15.6 54 21.2 0.60 (0.36–1.00)** 0.70 (0.40–1.23)
P for trend      0.01** 0.07
  1. *Adjusted for gender, age (continuous), BMI (continuous), cigarette smoking (packs/year), alcohol consumption (glasses/week), family history of diabetes (yes, no), and occupation (farmer, non-farmer, other)
  2. **Statistically significant (P < 0.05)
  3. ***P values for linear trend were derived using a continuous variable with the midpoint value of each category