Skip to main content

Table 1 General characteristics and variables between case and control groups

From: Association between diabetes and pesticides: a case-control study among Thai farmers

Characteristic Case (n = 866)* Control (n = 1021) P value**
Men (%) 286 (33.0) 357 (35.0) 0.38
Age (years)    0.99
 ≤ 44 57 (6.6) 71 (7.0)  
 45–54 246 (28.4) 293 (28.7)  
 55–64 373 (43.1) 435 (42.6)  
 65–74 162 (18.7) 186 (18.2)  
 ≥ 75 28 (3.2) 36 (3.5)  
 Mean age ± s.d. 57.68 ± 9.00 57.64 ± 9.17 0.92
 Median (min-max) 58.0 (25–84) 58.0 (15–86)  
BMI (kg/m2)    < 0.01
 < 18.50 27 (3.1) 66 (6.5)  
 18.50–22.90 227 (26.2) 379 (37.1)  
 23.00–24.90 178 (20.6) 182 (17.8)  
 25.00–29.90 283 (32.7) 279 (27.3)  
 > 30.00 115 (13.3) 76 (7.4)  
 Missing 36 (4.2) 39 (3.8)  
 Mean ± s.d. 25.70 ± 6.94 24.06 ± 6.04 < 0.01
 Median (min-max) 24.8 (13.8–141.7) 23.5 (13.8–166.7)  
Occupation    0.02
 Farmer 650 (75.1) 805 (78.8)  
 Non-farming private business 164 (18.9) 145 (14.2)  
 Other 49 (5.7) 70 (6.9)  
 Missing 3 (0.3) 1 (0.1)  
Cigarette smoke    < 0.01
 Never smoked cigarettes 719 (83.0) 798 (78.2)  
 Have smoked cigarettes 62 (7.2) 67 (6.6)  
 Current smoker 77 (8.9) 144 (14.1)  
 Missing 8 (0.9) 12 (1.2)  
 Mean pack/year ± s.d. 1.41 ± 5.80 2.56 ± 9.36 < 0.01
 Median pack/year (min-max) 0.0 (0.0–75.0) 0.0 (0.0–120)  
Alcohol consumption    < 0.01
 Never drank 616 (71.1) 647 (63.4)  
 Former drinker 112 (12.9) 112 (11.0)  
 Current drinker 128 (14.8) 244 (23.9)  
 Missing 10 (1.2) 18 (1.8)  
 Mean glasses per week ± s.d. 3.11 ± 11.6 4.8 ± 14.4 < 0.01
 Median glasses per week (min-max) 0.0 (0.0–84.0) 0.0 (0.0–84.0)  
Having family history of diabetes    < 0.01
 Yes 500 (57.7) 365 (35.7)  
 No 355 (41.0) 643 (63.0)  
 Missing 11 (1.3) 13 (1.3)  
Hours of sleep per day    0.95
 4–6 77 (8.9) 90 (8.8)  
 7–9 692 (79.9) 826 (80.9)  
 10–12 54 (6.2) 68 (6.7)  
 Missing 43 (5.0) 37 (3.6)  
 Mean ± s.d. 7.92 ± 1.12 7.93 ± 1.13 0.85
Lifestyle (morningness-eveningness)*** 0.77
 Morning types (larks) 799 (92.3) 948 (92.9)  
 Evening types (owls) 53 (6.1) 67 (6.6)  
 Missing 14 (1.6) 6 (0.6)  
Ever exercise during the past 12 months 0.60
 Yes 319 (36.8) 387 (37.9)  
 No 535 (61.8) 617 (60.4)  
 Missing 12 (1.4) 17 (1.7)  
Watching TV during leisure time    0.43
 Never 34 (3.9) 37 (3.6)  
 Rarely 147 (17.0) 155 (15.2)  
 Sometimes 331 (38.2) 368 (36.0)  
 Very often 254 (29.3) 337 (33.0)  
 Always 54 (6.2) 58 (5.7)  
 Missing 46 (5.3) 66 (6.5)  
Intakes of vegetables (cups per week) 0.72
 Quartile1 126 (14.5) 164 (16.1)  
 Quartile2 315 (36.4) 358 (35.1)  
 Quartile3 197 (22.7) 238 (23.3)  
 Quartile4 177 (20.4) 196 (19.2)  
 Missing 51 (5.9) 65 (6.4)  
 Mean cups per week ± s.d. 12.40 ± 11.58 12.00 ± 11.21 0.46
Intakes of fruits (cups per week)    0.95
 Quartile1 254 (29.3) 296 (29.0)  
 Quartile2 263 (30.4) 314 (30.8)  
 Quartile3 148 (17.1) 163 (16.0)  
 Quartile4 149 (17.2) 178 (17.4)  
 Missing 52 (6.0) 70 (6.9)  
 Mean cups per week ± s.d. 5.44 ± 6.91 5.29 ± 6.76 0.64
Intakes of sweets (cups per week)   0.22
 Quartile1 65 (7.5) 67 (6.6)  
 Quartile2 316 (36.5) 352 (34.5)  
 Quartile3 159 (18.4) 223 (21.8)  
 Quartile4 280 (32.3) 311 (30.5)  
 Missing 46 (5.3) 68 (6.7)  
 Mean cups per week ± s.d. 2.91 ± 4.56 2.98 ± 4.57 0.75
  1. *N was 1021 for control and 866 for case unless otherwise indicated
  2. **χ2 test for categorical data; t test for continuous data
  3. ***Morning types (larks) were those who wake up early and active during the day; evening types (owls) were usually feel alert in the night and wake up late in the morning