Skip to main content

Table 4 The influence of the combination of an exercise habit and the glycemic control on the incidence of CKD

From: The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males

  Total Developed CKD (n, per 10,000 person-years) Developed proteinuria (n, per 10,000 person-years) Univariate model Multivariable model
Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value
Combined with exercise habit and glycemic control states
 Exercise habit; yes + NGT 122 6 (82.0) 0 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 Exercise habit; yes + hyperglycemia 26 4 (256.4) 0 3.29 (0.93–9.66) 0.065 2.50 (0.69–9.14) 0.164
 Exercise habit; no + NGT 133 16 (200.5) 1 (12.5) 2.77 (1.08–7.08) 0.033 2.82 (1.07–7.36) 0.034
 Exercise habit; no + hyperglycemia 22 6 (454.5) 1 (75.8) 6.77 (2.18–18.02) 0.001 5.89 (1.87–16.63) 0.003
  1. The data are expressed as the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)). In this analysis, the lack of an exercise habit and the prevalence of hyperglycemia at baseline were dependent variables and the incidence of CKD was an independent variable. The multivariable model was adjusted for age, BMI, eGFR, the use of anti-hypertensive drugs and anti-hyperlipidemic agents, and smoking and drinking habits at baseline