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Table 2 The baseline characteristics in subjects with and without habitual exercise and hyperglycemia

From: The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males

  Habitual exercise p value Presence/absence of hyperglycemia p value
Yes (n = 148) No (n = 155) NGT (n = 255) Hyperglycemia (n = 48)
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 77.3 ± 10.5 76.7 ± 10.2 0.583 76.0 ± 9.5 77.2 ± 10.5 0.495
Classifications of CKD grade
 G1 (n, %; eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) 12 (8.1) 17 (11.0) 0.396 26 (10.2) 3 (6.3) 0.348
 G2 (n, %; eGFR 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2) 136 (91.9) 138 (89.0)   229 (89.8) 45 (93.7)  
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.83 ± 0.10 0.85 ± 0.09 0.225 0.83 ± 0.09 0.84 ± 0.10 0.583
Age (years) 52.1 ± 6.5 52.3 ± 6.8 0.887 51.5 ± 6.7 55.6 ± 5.9 < 0.0001
Body weight (kg) 66.8 ± 9.9 68.4 ± 8.8 0.176 67.1 ± 9.1 69.5 ± 10.0 0.099
BMI (kg/m2) 23.1 ± 2.6 23.7 ± 2.8 0.094 23.3 ± 2.2 24.2 ± 2.6 0.137
Waist circumference (cm) 81.1 ± 8.0 85.4 ± 7.1 0.086 82.3 ± 7.5 85.6 ± 7.9 0.166
SBP (mmHg) 125.1 ± 15.6 129.6 ± 14.7 0.041 125.3 ± 14.6 134.2 ± 17.3 0.002
DBP (mmHg) 81.6 ± 10.4 83.8 ± 10.4 0.753 82.1 ± 10.2 85.9 ± 11.2 0.048
LDL-C (mg/dl) 117.0 ± 26.3 119.7 ± 24.1 0.346 118.9 ± 25.3 116.0 ± 24.5 0.456
HDL-C (mg/dl) 60.3 ± 13.2 56.1 ± 13.1 0.005 59.7 ± 13.1 54.3 ± 14.3 0.009
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 111.8 ± 69.1 117.9 ± 70.6 0.452 110.4 ± 67.9 138.2 ± 75.3 0.010
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 97.8 ± 14.9 104.2 ± 20.8 0.146 95.0 ± 7.7 128.3 ± 27.9 < 0.0001
HbA1c (NGSP values; %) 5.5 ± 0.6 5.8 ± 0.8 0.036 5.4 ± 0.4 6.4 ± 1.3 < 0.0001
HbA1c (IFCC values; %) 35.5 ± 6.8 40.4 ± 8.4 0.031 36.3 ± 3.9 46.6 ± 13.9 < 0.0001
Smoking habit (yes/no; n, %) 30 (20.3)/118 (79.7) 33 (21.3)/122 (78.7) 0.827 56 (22.0)/199 (78.0) 7 (14.6)/41 (85.4) 0.195
Drinking habit (yes/no; n, %) 119 (80.4)/29 (19.6) 113 (72.9)/42 (27.1) 0.123 192 (75.3)/63 (24.7) 40 (83.3)/8 (16.7) 0.531
Anti-hypertensive drugs (yes/no; n, %) 19 (12.8)/129 (87.2) 24 (15.5)/131 (84.5) 0.509 29 (11.4)/226 (88.6) 14 (29.2)/34 (70.8) 0.002
Anti-hyperlipidemic agents (yes/no; n, %) 17 (11.5)/131 (88.5) 8 (5.2)/147 (94.8) 0.046 19 (7.5)/236 (92.5) 6 (12.5)/42 (87.5) 0.292
Hypoglycemic drugs (yes/no; n, %) 2 (1.4)/146 (98.6) 5 (3.2)/150 (96.8) 0.278 0 (0)/255 (100) 7 (14.6)/41 (85.4) < 0.0001
  1. The data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and the number of subjects
  2. The abbreviations are the same as those in Table 1