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Table 1 The baseline characteristics in subjects with and without the development of CKD

From: The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males

  All (n = 303) Developed CKD (n = 32) Did not develop CKD (n = 271) p value
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 77.0 ± 10.3 66.8 ± 5.3 78.2 ± 10.1 < 0.0001
Classifications of CKD grade
 G1 (n, %; eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) 29 (9.6) 0 (0) 29 (10.7) 0.052
 G2 (n, %; eGFR 60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2) 274 (90.4) 32 (100) 242 (89.3)  
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.84 ± 0.09 0.93 ± 0.06 0.83 ± 0.09 < 0.0001
Age (years) 52.2 ± 6.7 54.6 ± 6.5 51.9 ± 6.7 0.030
Body weight (kg) 67.6 ± 9.3 67.7 ± 9.0 67.5 ± 9.4 0.902
BMI (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 2.8 23.3 ± 2.7 23.4 ± 2.8 0.921
Waist circumference (cm) 83.5 ± 7.6 84.6 ± 7.2 83.4 ± 7.6 0.379
SBP (mmHg) 126.8 ± 15.4 133.7 ± 15.2 126.0 ± 15.2 0.007
DBP (mmHg) 83.0 ± 10.4 86.6 ± 9.4 82.6 ± 10.5 0.038
LDL-C (mg/dl) 118.4 ± 25.2 119.4 ± 25.3 118.3 ± 25.1 0.819
HDL-C (mg/dl) 58.2 ± 13.3 53.7 ± 11.0 58.7 ± 13.5 0.043
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 115.0 ± 69.9 132.0 ± 124.0 113.0 ± 60.4 0.145
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 100.5 ± 18.1 107.1 ± 30.1 99.7 ± 16.1 0.030
HbA1c (NGSP values; %) 5.6 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 0.7 0.031
HbA1c (IFCC values; %) 38.0 ± 7.7 40.7 ± 9.6 37.7 ± 7.4 0.031
Smoking habit (yes/no; n, %) 63 (20.8)/240 (79.2) 5 (15.6)/27 (84.4) 58 (21.4)/213 (78.6) 0.446
Drinking habit (yes/no; n, %) 232 (76.6)/71 (23.4) 21 (65.6)/11 (34.4) 211 (77.9)/60 (22.1) 0.122
Anti-hypertensive drugs (yes/no; n, %) 43 (14.2)/260 (85.8) 9 (28.1)/23 (71.9) 34 (12.5)/237 (87.5) 0.017
Anti-hyperlipidemic agents (yes/no; n, %) 25 (8.3)/278 (91.7) 7 (21.9)/25 (78.1) 18 (6.6)/253 (93.4) 0.003
Hypoglycemic drugs (yes/no; n, %) 7 (2.3)/296 (97.7) 2 (6.3)/30 (93.7) 5 (1.8)/266 (98.2) 0.117
Exercise habit (yes/no; n, %) 148 (48.8)/155 (51.2) 10 (31.3)/22 (68.7) 138 (50.9)/133 (49.1) 0.035
  1. The data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and the number of subjects. The CKD grades were defined according to the definitions of the Japanese Society of Nephrology [18]. The exercise habit was determined based on the subjects’ responses to the following questionnaire items: habitual moderate exercise ≥ 30 min at a time and ≥ 2 times per week and/or physical activity equal to walking at least 1 h per day
  2. CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA 1 c hemoglobin A1c, NGSP National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program, IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine