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Table 1 Characteristics of cases and controls

From: Association between NAT2, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 genotypes, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and prostate cancer risk: a case control study in Japan

Characteristics Cases Controls P
Number 351 351  
Age, years; mean (SD) 64.9 (0.35) 64.9 (0.35) 1.00b
 < 65; n (%) 180 (51.3%) 180 (51.3%)  
 ≥ 65; n (%) 171 (48.7%) 171 (48.7%) 1.00a
Family history of prostate cancer; n (%) 13 (3.7%) 4 (1.1%) 0.027a
Alcohol consumption, g/week; mean (SD) 151.6 (192.4) 196.0 (207.2) < 0.001b
Smoking status; n (%)
 Never 126 (35.9%) 108 (30.8%)  
 Ever 225 (64.1%) 243 (69.2%) 0.15a
 Current smoker 55 (15.7%) 67 (19.1%) 0.23a
 Ex-smoker 170 (48.4%) 176 (50.1%) 0.65a
BMI, kg/m2; mean (SD) 23.8 (0.14) 23.8 (0.13) 1.00b
Total HAA intake, ng/day; mean (SD) 46.5 (1.6) 38.2 (1.7) < 0.001b
 Trp-P-1 intake 3.9 (0.23) 3.1 (0.19) < 0.001b
 IQ intake 0.32 (0.021) 0.27 (0.018) 0.012b
 MeIQ intake 5.9 (0.21) 4.8 (0.17) < 0.001b
 MeIQx intake 6.4 (0.21) 5.2 (0.20) < 0.001b
 4,8-DiMelQx intake 0.41 (0.34) 0.36 (0.33) 0.10b
 7,8-DiMelQx intake 1.6 (0.14) 1.4 (0.14) 0.06b
 PhIP intake 28.2 (0.98) 23.3 (0.93) < 0.001 b
Total energy intake, kcal/day; mean (SD) 1869.2 (567.8) 1789.3 (519.9) 0.30b
Meat intake, g/day; mean (SD) 59.9 (41.0) 50.2 (36.1) 0.84b
Red meat intake, g/day; mean (SD) 47.3 (33.8) 37.6 (31.0) 0.87b
Processed meat intake, g/day; mean (SD) 7.1 (7.9) 6.3 (8.6) 0.42b
Fish intake, g/day; mean (SD) 84.2 (58.3) 77.4 (62.8) 0.51b
Vegetable intake, g/day; mean (SD) 88.7 (68.4) 82.7 (73.2) 0.24b
NaCl intake, g/day; mean (SD) 10.1 (4.5) 9.2 (4.1) 0.79b
Participants with preference on meat cooked level as well done or very well done (%) 33 (50.7%) 26(44%) 0.40a
Participants with preference on eating almost all of grilled fish skin (%) 71 (50.4%) 70 (49.6%) 0.99a
  1. BMI body mass index; SD standard deviation; HAA heterocyclic aromatic amine; NaCl sodium chloride; Trp-P-1 3-Amino-1, 4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4, 3-b]indole; IQ 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline; MeIQ 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline; MeIQx 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 4,8-DiMelQx 2-Amino-3, 4, 8-trimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoxaline; 7,8-DiMelQx 2-Amino-3, 7, 8-trimethylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinoxaline; PhIP 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine
  2. aChi-square test
  3. bMann-Whitney test