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Table 3 Maternal pregnancy situation, childbirth situation, and child situation at childbirth in stepfamilies and non-stepfamilies

From: Characteristics of stepfamilies and maternal mental health compared with non-stepfamilies in Japan

  Stepfamilies
n = 47
n (%)
Non-stepfamilies
n = 2199
n (%)
p value
Maternal pregnancy situation and the childbirth situation
 Presence or absence of participation in childbirth education classes
  Yes 20 (42.6) 1700 (77.8) <.001a
  No 27 (57.4) 484 (22.2)  
 Smoking during pregnancy
  No 37 (80.4) 2116 (97.6) <.001b
  Yes 9 (19.6) 51 (2.4)  
 Planned pregnancy
  Yes 21 (45.7) 1453 (66.9) .003a
  No 25 (54.3) 720 (33.1)  
 Complicated birth
  No 41 (87.2) 1987 (91.5) .298b
  Yes 6 (12.8) 184 (8.5)  
Child situation at childbirth
 Gestational age (weeks)
  ≥37 41 (93.2) 1999 (94.4) .722b
  <37 3 (6.8) 118 (5.6)  
 Birth weight
  ≥2500 g 43 (93.5) 1987 (91.8) .684b
  <2500 g 3 (6.5) 177 (8.2)  
  1. No answers were excluded
  2. aChi-squared test
  3. bFisher’s exact probability test