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Table 1 Maternal characteristics and their differences between the normal and excessive use groups

From: Association of excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy with birth weight: an adjunct study in Kumamoto of Japan Environment and Children’s Study

Maternal characteristics Total (N = 461) Mobile normal user (N = 415) Mobile excessive user (N = 46) P value
Maternal age 29.54 (±5.35) 30.03 (±5.08) 25.09 (±5.70) <0.001
Mobile start age, years 17.29 (±2.81) 17.48 (±2.80) 15.63 (2.33) <0.001
Wight change during pregnancy 11.25 (±3.88) 11.20 (±3.85) 11.67 (±4.12) 0.44
Maternal BMI before pregnancy 21.49 (±3.01) 21.52 (±3.43) 21.13 (±3.16) 0.45
Maternal smoking
 Yes 29 (6.3%) 24 (5.8%) 5 (10.9%) 0.19
 No 432 (93.7%) 391 (94.2%) 41 (89.1%)  
Marital status
 Single 31 (6.7%) 18 (4.3%) 13 (28.3%) <0.001
 Married 430 (93.3%) 397 (95.7%) 33 (71.7%)  
Employment status
 Full-time joba 111 (24.1%) 96 (23.1%) 15 (32.6%) 0.09
 Part-time job 152 (33.0%) 135 (32.5%) 17 (37.0%)  
 Housewife 162 (35.1%) 152 (36.6%) 10 (21.7%)  
 Independent business 18 (3.9%) 16 (3.9%) 2 (4.3%)  
 No answers 18 (3.9%) 16 (3.9%) 2 (4.3%)  
Family income, ¥ per year
 <4,000,000 255 (55.3%) 225 (54.2%) 30 (65.2%) 0.03
 4,000,000–7,999,999 141 (30.6%) 133 (32.0%) 8 (1.7%)  
 8,000,000–11,999,999 15 (3.3%) 15 (3.6%) 0 (0%)  
12,000,000 12 (2.6%) 11 (2.7%) 1 (2.1%)  
 No answer 38 (8.2%) 31 (7.5%) 7 (15.2%)  
Maternal schooling degree
 High schoola 253 (54.9%) 216 (52.0%) 37 (80.4%) <0.001
 Collegeb 206 (44.7%) 197 (47.5%) 9 (19.6%)  
 Otherwise 2 (0.4%) 2 (0.5%) 0 (0%)  
Primiparity
 Yes 307 (66.6%) 281 (67.7%) 26 (56.5%) <0.001
 No 154 (33.4%) 134 (32.3%) 20 (43.5%)  
Time of laid up (excluding sleep), hours 5.00 (±3.68) 4.95 (±3.74) 5.57 (±2.93) 0.36
Time of watch TV, hours 2.67 (±2.05) 2.56 (±2.00) 3.59 (±2.27) 0.09
Time of playing game, minutes 28.0 (±56.5) 21.17 (±0.7) 89.90 (±1.8) <0.001
Time of mobile use, minutes 133.7 (±191.4) 113.91 (±167.9) 314.91 (279.0) <0.001
Designated spot for mobile
 Bag 364 (79.0%) 335 (80.7%) 29 (63.0%) 0.66
 Trouser pocket 48 (10.4%) 34 (8.2%) 14 (30.4%)  
 Shirt pocket 5 (1.1%) 5 (1.2%) 0 (0%)  
 Coat pocket 17 (3.7%) 14 (3.4%) 3 (6.5%)  
 Others 27 (5.9%) 27 (6.5%) 0 (0%)  
Designated spot for mobile
 Bag or coat pocket and others 408 (88.5%) 376 (90.6%) 32 (69.6%) <0.001
 Trouser pocket or shirt pocket 53 (11.5%) 39 (9.4%) 14 (30.4%)  
Bed time (time go to bed, PM) 10:54 10:54 11:48 <0.001
Power state of the mobile phone during sleep     0.65
 On 425 (92.2%) 381 (91.6%) 44 (95.7%)  
 Usually on 22 (4.8%) 20 (4.8%) 2 (4.3%)  
 Sometimes on 6 (1.3%) 6 (1.4%) 0 (0%)  
 Off 8 (1.7%) 8 (1.9%) 0 (0%)  
Location of the phone during sleep     0.33
 0.5 m from abdominal 115 (24.9%) 99 (23.9%) 16 (34.8%)  
 1 m from abdominal 236 (51.2%) 216 (52.0%) 20 (43.5%)  
 1.5 m from abdominal 62 (13.3%) 55 (13.3%) 7 (15.2%)  
 2 m from abdominal 48 (10.4%) 45 (10.8%) 3 (6.5%)  
Total sleep time (hours) 7.5 (±1.48) 7.5 (±1.46) 7.7 (±1.64) 0.35
Pregnancy complications     0.30
 Yes 12 (2.6%) 12 (2.9%) 0 (0%)  
 No 449 (97.4%) 403 (97.1%) 46 (100%)  
Obstetric labor complication     0.08
 Yes 219 (47.6%) 193 (46.5%) 27 (58.7%)  
 No 241 (52.4%) 222 (53.5%) 19 (41.3%)  
  1. aIncluding junior high school
  2. bIncluding technical college and junior college