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Table 2 Plasma free amino acid concentrations (μmol/L) and index values in the study population. The values are shown as means ± standard deviations

From: Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

  Metabolic syndrome DM Dyslipidemia Hypertension
  Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease Disease Non-disease
N, subjects 737 6433 465 7650 3582 4533 3141 4974
Val 238.4 ± 38.6 202.8 ± 38.3*** 232.3 ± 42.1 204.5 ± 38.9*** 215.7 ± 40.0 198.5 ± 37.6*** 212.8 ± 39.2 201.9 ± 39.3***
Leu 129.1 ± 24.1 109.5 ± 22.2*** 124.0 ± 24.7 110.1 ± 22.6*** 115.9 ± 23.7 106.9 ± 21.6*** 113.5 ± 22.7 109.2 ± 23.0***
Ile 67.3 ± 15.0 55.6 ± 13.0*** 65.1 ± 15.2 56.3 ± 13.4*** 59.4 ± 14.3 54.7 ± 12.7*** 58.7 ± 13.6 55.5 ± 13.6***
Trp 57.3 ± 10.0 53.0 ± 9.4*** 53.9 ± 10.5 53.1 ± 9.4 54.3 ± 9.6 52.2 ± 9.3*** 53.7 ± 9.8 52.7 ± 9.3***
Phe 62.0 ± 9.1 56.5 ± 8.9*** 61.7 ± 9.0 57.3 ± 9.1*** 58.8 ± 8.9 56.6 ± 9.3*** 59.9 ± 9.4 56.1 ± 8.8***
Tyr 71.1 ± 13.2 61.3 ± 12.3*** 68.6 ± 15.1 62.5 ± 12.7*** 64.7 ± 12.6 61.5 ± 13.0*** 66.6 ± 13.4 60.5 ± 12.0***
Ala 399.3 ± 78.7 329.9 ± 75.6*** 381.5 ± 84.9 334.8 ± 76.8*** 352.9 ± 80.4 325.2 ± 73.9*** 350.7 ± 79.3 329.1 ± 76.1***
Gly 199.0 ± 46.3 225.6 ± 59.6*** 205.1 ± 50.5 224.4 ± 60.0*** 219.2 ± 60.2 226.6 ± 59.0*** 217.6 ± 60.5 226.9 ± 58.9***
Gln 587.1 ± 76.0 589.1 ± 67.7 598.4 ± 82.7 592.2 ± 68.8 597.2 ± 68.5 588.9 ± 70.5*** 597.4 ± 71.2 589.5 ± 68.6***
Ser 106.1 ± 19.9 113.2 ± 20.5*** 113.0 ± 21.6 112.3 ± 20.4 110.0 ± 20.2 114.1 ± 20.4*** 109.3 ± 20.0 114.2 ± 20.5***
His 82.4 ± 17.8 79.3 ± 14.5*** 80.4 ± 9.8 79.2 ± 14.6 79.8 ± 11.8 78.8 ± 16.1** 79.0 ± 9.5 79.3 ± 16.7
Lys 199.4 ± 31.5 181.8 ± 32.6*** 195.9 ± 32.6 182.6 ± 32.5*** 189.3 ± 31.9 178.6 ± 32.5*** 186.9 ± 31.5 181.1 ± 33.2***
Met 27.1 ± 5.1 24.7 ± 5.7*** 26.5 ± 5.3 24.8 ± 5.5*** 25.1 ± 5.8 24.8 ± 5.3** 25.3 ± 4.9 24.7 ± 5.9***
Thr 130.0 ± 31.9 122.0 ± 27.1*** 125.2 ± 29.3 121.9 ± 27.3* 122.1 ± 27.5 122.2 ± 27.4 123.3 ± 28.4 121.4 ± 26.8**
Asn 45.6 ± 7.0 45.7 ± 7.2 46.7 ± 8.1 45.6 ± 7.2** 45.3 ± 6.8 46.0 ± 7.5*** 45.6 ± 7.3 45.7 ± 7.2
Cit 30.6 ± 8.2 30.0 ± 7.4* 34.0 ± 11.4 30.7 ± 7.9*** 31.7 ± 8.0 30.3 ± 8.3*** 32.8 ± 8.6 29.7 ± 7.6***
Arg 98.4 ± 17.9 94.5 ± 18.8*** 100.1 ± 22.1 95.0 ± 18.5*** 97.1 ± 18.2 93.9 ± 19.1*** 97.2 ± 17.7 94.1 ± 19.3***
Pro 153.9 ± 45.7 128.0 ± 42.2*** 148.1 ± 46.5 129.4 ± 42.7*** 135.5 ± 44.5 126.5 ± 41.7*** 134.1 ± 42.1 128.2 ± 43.7***
Orn 51.7 ± 11.6 47.1 ± 11.9*** 54.8 ± 15.3 48.2 ± 12.6*** 50.6 ± 12.6 46.9 ± 12.7*** 51.6 ± 12.9 46.6 ± 12.4***
Index 1 143.3 ± 35.1 101.0 ± 34.8*** 133.3 ± 39.9 104.3 ± 36.0*** 115.3 ± 37.7 98.6 ± 34.5*** 116.1 ± 37.4 99.6 ± 35.0***
Index 2 50.5 ± 17.8 34.5 ± 17.0*** 48.3 ± 17.6 36.5 ± 17.6*** 41.3 ± 17.2 34.0 ± 17.6*** 42.9 ± 16.3 33.6 ± 17.8***
  1. Differences in the total number of total subjects for different diseases are due to varying missing data
  2. Statistical differences between disease and non-disease subjects are shown as *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001, respectively